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Figure 21-4 THE ART OF LATER JAPAN From The Shoguns to the Present DELVON TURNER & CHRISTINA AVERY.

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Presentation on theme: "Figure 21-4 THE ART OF LATER JAPAN From The Shoguns to the Present DELVON TURNER & CHRISTINA AVERY."— Presentation transcript:

1 Figure 21-4 THE ART OF LATER JAPAN From The Shoguns to the Present DELVON TURNER & CHRISTINA AVERY

2 Figure 21-4 From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN Western Perspective in Prints: Another subject, landscapes, often incorporated Western perspective techniques. One of the most famous designers in this genre was KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI (1760–1849). In The Great Wave Off Kanagawa, the huge foreground wave dwarfs distant Mount Fuji. Hokusai places the wave's more traditionally flat and powerfully graphic forms against the low horizon, typical of Western perspective painting.

3 From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN

4 Figure 21-4 THE ART OF LATER JAPAN From The Shoguns to the Present Shoguns, Samurai, and Buddism In 1336, the Ashikaga clan formed Japan's second shogunate, and ruled from the Muromachi district of Kyoto. Under the Ashikaga shoguns, local lords had power over local affairs, and Ultimately strived for control of the country. Zen Buddhism grew alongside other sects, especially Pure Land Buddhism. Because Zen emphasized rigorous discipline and personal responsibility, it held a special attraction for samurai (warriors). Aristocrats and merchants also supported Zen temples, which were centers for the study of Chinese art, literature, and learning. FEUDAL JAPAN Muromachi Period (1334–1573)

5 27-1 Dry cascade and pools, upper garden, Saihoji, Kyoto, modified in Muromachi period, fourteenth century Image goe here Delete this text before placing the image here. Zen Spirituality and Rock Gardens: The Saihoji temple gardens exemplify the continuities and transitions that marked religious art in the Muromachi period. After this Pure Land temple was transformed into a Zen institution, the gardens continued to evoke the beauty of Amida's Pure Land while serving the Zen faith's more meditative needs. The gardens echo the complementary roles of the two Buddhist sects in the Muromachi period. The iridescently green mosses of Saihoji's lower gardens, which seem to belong to another world, contrast with early examples of dry landscape gardening on the hillsides. In eastern Asia, gazing at dramatic natural scenery was considered beneficial to the human spirit. Arranging stones to suggest landscapes, as seen in Chinese paintings, encouraged aesthetic and spiritual engagement with the scene, which could be fully visualized only in the mind Dry cascade and pools, upper garden, Saihoji, Kyoto, modified in Muromachi period, fourteenth century Image goe here Delete this text before placing the image here. Zen Spirituality and Rock Gardens: The Saihoji temple gardens exemplify the flow and transitions that marked religious art in the Muromachi period. After this Pure Land temple was transformed into a Zen institution, the gardens continued to evoke the beauty of Amida's Pure Land while serving the Zen faith's more meditative needs. The gardens echo the complementary roles of the two Buddhist sects in the Muromachi period. The colorful, green mosses of Saihoji's lower gardens, which seem to belong to another world, contrast with early examples of dry landscape gardening on the hillsides. In eastern Asia, gazing at dramatic natural scenery was considered beneficial to the human spirit. Arranging stones to suggest landscapes, as seen in Chinese paintings, encouraged aesthetic and spiritual engagement with the scene, which could be fully visualized only in the mind. From The Shoguns to the Present THE ART OF LATER JAPAN

6 Fifteenth Century Italian Art 27-2 TOYO SESSHU, splashed-ink landscape, Muromachi period, Hanging scroll, ink on paper, 4' 10 1/4" X 1' 7/8". Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo. Splashed-Ink Painting: Styles and subjects of ink painting in the Muromachi period usually followed Chinese precedents closely. Most of the ink painting masters were at least ostensibly Zen monks. TOYO SESSHU (1420– 1506) was one of the few artists who traveled to China, and learned much from Ming painters. In his splashed-ink pictures, spontaneity is balanced with a thorough knowledge of the painting tradition. From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN 27-2 TOYO SESSHU, splashed-ink landscape, Muromachi period, Hanging scroll, ink on paper, 4' 10 1/4" X 1' 7/8". Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo. THE ART OF LATER JAPAN

7 27-3 Attributed to TOSA MITSUNOBU, Tale of Genji ("Yugao," scene 4), Muromachi period, early sixteenth century. Album, ink and color on paper, approx. 9 1/2" X 7". Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge 15th Century Italian Art The Tosa School: The Tosa School and the more influential Kano School emerged during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. TOSA MITSUNOBU (1434–1525), director of the Painting Bureau and chief painter at the imperial court, also worked for great temples allied to the court and the Ashikaga shoguns. His Tale of Genji illustrations incorporate more narrative elements in elegant arrangements, without the intimate moods of earlier versions. Similar to TOSA MITSUNOBU, 27-3 Attributed to TOSA MITSUNOBU, Tale of Genji ("Yugao," scene 4), Muromachi period, early sixteenth century. Album, ink and color on paper, approx. 9 1/2" X 7". Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge The Tosa School: The Tosa School and the more influential Kano School emerged during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. TOSA MITSUNOBU (1434–1525), director of the Painting Bureau and chief painter at the imperial court, also worked for great temples allied to the court and the Ashikaga shoguns. His Tale of Genji illustrations incorporate more narrative elements in elegant arrangements, without the intimate moods of earlier versions. Similar to TOSA MITSUNOBU, From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN

8 Early Renaissance 27-4 KANO MOTONOBU, Zen Patriarch Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping with a Broom, Muromachi period, ca Hanging scroll, ink and color on paper, 5' 7 3/8" X 2' 10 3/4". Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo. 15th Century Italian Art Figure The Rise of the Kano School: As an independent painter in the tumultuous early sixteenth century, KANO MOTONOBU (1476–1559) formed an efficient workshop and adapted his own broad repertoire to its needs. Motonobu's Zen Patriarch Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping with a Broom depicts the monk experiencing the moment of enlightenment. The work incorporates features of Chinese academic modes of ink painting. Motonobu's picture was one of a set of sliding doors for a Zen temple. Such architectural decoration formed a growing component of the repertoires of the Kano School and later rivals. Early Renaissance 27-4 KANO MOTONOBU, Zen Patriarch Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping with a Broom, Muromachi period, ca Hanging scroll, ink and color on paper, 5' 7 3/8" X 2' 10 3/4". Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo. Figure The Rise of the Kano School: As an independent painter in the tumultuous early sixteenth century, KANO MOTONOBU (1476–1559) formed an efficient workshop and adapted his own broad repertoire to its needs. Motonobu's Zen Patriarch Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping with a Broom depicts the monk experiencing the moment of enlightenment. The work incorporates features of Chinese academic modes of ink painting. Motonobu's picture was one of a set of sliding doors for a Zen temple. Such architectural decoration formed a growing component of the repertoires of the Kano School and later rivals. THE ART OF LATER JAPAN From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN The Rise of the Kano School: As an independent painter in the disorderly early sixteenth century, KANO MOTONOBU (1476–1559) formed an efficient workshop and adapted his own broad repertoire to its needs. Motonobu's Zen Patriarch Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping with a Broom depicts the monk experiencing the moment of enlightenment. The work incorporates features of Chinese academic modes of ink painting. Motonobu's picture was one of a set of sliding doors for a Zen temple. Such architectural decoration formed a growing component of the repertoires of the Kano School and later rivals KANO MOTONOBU, Zen Patriarch Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping with a Broom, Muromachi period, ca Hanging scroll, ink and color on paper, 5' 7 3/8" X 2' 10 3/4". Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo.

9 Early Renaissance 27-4 KANO MOTONOBU, Zen Patriarch Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping with a Broom, Muromachi period, ca Hanging scroll, ink and color on paper, 5' 7 3/8" X 2' 10 3/4". Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo. 15th Century Italian Art Figure The Rise of the Kano School: As an independent painter in the tumultuous early sixteenth century, KANO MOTONOBU (1476–1559) formed an efficient workshop and adapted his own broad repertoire to its needs. Motonobu's Zen Patriarch Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping with a Broom depicts the monk experiencing the moment of enlightenment. The work incorporates features of Chinese academic modes of ink painting. Motonobu's picture was one of a set of sliding doors for a Zen temple. Such architectural decoration formed a growing component of the repertoires of the Kano School and later rivals. Early Renaissance 27-4 KANO MOTONOBU, Zen Patriarch Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping with a Broom, Muromachi period, ca Hanging scroll, ink and color on paper, 5' 7 3/8" X 2' 10 3/4". Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo. Figure The Rise of the Kano School: As an independent painter in the tumultuous early sixteenth century, KANO MOTONOBU (1476–1559) formed an efficient workshop and adapted his own broad repertoire to its needs. Motonobu's Zen Patriarch Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping with a Broom depicts the monk experiencing the moment of enlightenment. The work incorporates features of Chinese academic modes of ink painting. Motonobu's picture was one of a set of sliding doors for a Zen temple. Such architectural decoration formed a growing component of the repertoires of the Kano School and later rivals. THE ART OF LATER JAPAN From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN The Role of the Tea Ceremony: The favorite exercise of refinement in the Momoyama period was the tea ceremony, which eventually carried political and ideological implications. The ceremony also acquired special social significance as it gained acceptance as a major expression of aesthetic and even spiritual sophistication. A New Refined Rusticity: In the late fifteenth century, the new aesthetic of refined rusticity, or wabi, included appreciation of rustic Korean and Japanese wares, as well as the design of very simple tea rooms and teahouses. Zen concepts also played an important role in this aesthetic. The Shino water jar named Kogan shows the wabi aesthetic's influence in the tea ceremony. The coarse stoneware body, simple form, and casual decoration offer the same aesthetic and interpretive challenges and opportunities as the dry landscape gardens of Zen temples Tea-ceremony water jar, or Kogan (ancient stream bank), Momoyama period, late sixteenth century. Shino ware with underglaze design, 7" high. Hatakeyama Memorial Museum, Tokyo. Momoyama Period (1573–1615) THE ART OF LATER JAPAN

10 Early Renaissance 27-4 KANO MOTONOBU, Zen Patriarch Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping with a Broom, Muromachi period, ca Hanging scroll, ink and color on paper, 5' 7 3/8" X 2' 10 3/4". Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo. 15th Century Italian Art Figure The Rise of the Kano School: As an independent painter in the tumultuous early sixteenth century, KANO MOTONOBU (1476–1559) formed an efficient workshop and adapted his own broad repertoire to its needs. Motonobu's Zen Patriarch Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping with a Broom depicts the monk experiencing the moment of enlightenment. The work incorporates features of Chinese academic modes of ink painting. Motonobu's picture was one of a set of sliding doors for a Zen temple. Such architectural decoration formed a growing component of the repertoires of the Kano School and later rivals. Early Renaissance 27-4 KANO MOTONOBU, Zen Patriarch Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping with a Broom, Muromachi period, ca Hanging scroll, ink and color on paper, 5' 7 3/8" X 2' 10 3/4". Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo. Figure The Rise of the Kano School: As an independent painter in the tumultuous early sixteenth century, KANO MOTONOBU (1476–1559) formed an efficient workshop and adapted his own broad repertoire to its needs. Motonobu's Zen Patriarch Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping with a Broom depicts the monk experiencing the moment of enlightenment. The work incorporates features of Chinese academic modes of ink painting. Motonobu's picture was one of a set of sliding doors for a Zen temple. Such architectural decoration formed a growing component of the repertoires of the Kano School and later rivals. THE ART OF LATER JAPAN From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN Tea Rooms as Ceremonial Spaces: The ultimate representation of the new wabi aesthetic in the Momoyama period was the Taian teahouse, designed under the direction of the most renowned tea master, SEN NO RIKYU (1522–1591). The interior displays two standard features of Japanese residential architecture that developed in the late Muromachi period-very thick, rigid straw mats (tatami) and an alcove (tokonoma), a place to hang painting or calligraphy and to display other prized objects. The room's dimness and tiny size produce a cavelike feel and force intimacy among the tea host and guests. The small entrance emphasizes a guest's passage into a ceremonial space. Rikyu was tea adviser to two of Japan's great reunifiers. In contrast, the second Momoyama warlord held grand tea ceremonies in lavish surroundings. Such were the extremes of 27-6 SEN NO RIKYU, Taian teahouse (interior view), Momoyama period, ca. 1582, Myokian Temple, Kyoto, Japan.

11 Figure 21-4 From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN Momoyama Painting - In the Momoyama period, a succession of three great warloads imposed peace on a country civil war had ravaged since the late fifteenth century. Chinese Lions on a Japanese Screen: The warlords erected huge castles with palatial residences, and asked the Kano painters and their rivals to decorate them. Gold screens had been known since Muromachi times, but Momoyama painters made them even bolder, reducing in number and often greatly enlarging the motifs against flat fields of gold leaf. Motonobu's grandson, KANO EITOKU (1543–1590), was the dominant painter of such murals and screens. Because of the enormous scope of Eitoku's decoration projects, he often worked in the monumental style represented by Chinese Lions. The lions, defined by broad contour lines, stride forw 27-7 KANO EITOKU, Chinese Lions, Momoyama period, late sixteenth century. Six-panel screen, color, ink, and gold-leaf on paper, 7' 4" X 14'10". Imperial Household Agency, Tokyo.

12 Figure 21-4 From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN A Forest in the Mist: HASEGAWA TOHAKU (1539–1610), a protegé of Rikyu, sometimes worked in the loose ink-monochrome manner of the thirteenth-century Chinese Chan monk Muqi. In Pine Forest, the trees emerge from and recede into a heavy mist. In Zen terms, the picture suggests the illusory nature of mundane reality while evoking a meditative mood HASEGAWA TOHAKU, Pine Forest, Momoyama period, late sixteenth century. One of pair of six-panel screens, ink on paper, 5' 1 3/8" X 11' 4". Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo.

13 Early Renaissance 27-4 KANO MOTONOBU, Zen Patriarch Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping with a Broom, Muromachi period, ca Hanging scroll, ink and color on paper, 5' 7 3/8" X 2' 10 3/4". Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo. 15th Century Italian Art Figure The Rise of the Kano School: As an independent painter in the tumultuous early sixteenth century, KANO MOTONOBU (1476–1559) formed an efficient workshop and adapted his own broad repertoire to its needs. Motonobu's Zen Patriarch Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping with a Broom depicts the monk experiencing the moment of enlightenment. The work incorporates features of Chinese academic modes of ink painting. Motonobu's picture was one of a set of sliding doors for a Zen temple. Such architectural decoration formed a growing component of the repertoires of the Kano School and later rivals. Early Renaissance 27-4 KANO MOTONOBU, Zen Patriarch Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping with a Broom, Muromachi period, ca Hanging scroll, ink and color on paper, 5' 7 3/8" X 2' 10 3/4". Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo. Figure The Rise of the Kano School: As an independent painter in the tumultuous early sixteenth century, KANO MOTONOBU (1476–1559) formed an efficient workshop and adapted his own broad repertoire to its needs. Motonobu's Zen Patriarch Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping with a Broom depicts the monk experiencing the moment of enlightenment. The work incorporates features of Chinese academic modes of ink painting. Motonobu's picture was one of a set of sliding doors for a Zen temple. Such architectural decoration formed a growing component of the repertoires of the Kano School and later rivals. THE ART OF LATER JAPAN From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN Edo Period (1615–1868) In 1615, Tokugawa Ieyasu established a new shogunate, centered in Edo. The new regime instituted many policies designed to limit Japan's pace of social and cultural change. The expansion of urban centers, the spread of literacy, and a growing thirst for knowledge and diversion, however, made for a very lively popular culture. A Princely Villa at Kyoto: The imperial court continued to influence taste and culture. The harmonious integration of building and garden in the Katsura Imperial Villa became one of the great ideals of Japanese residential architecture, and has also inspired architects worldwide. While many of its design features derive from earlier teahouses, the Katsura Villa also incorporates elements of courtly gracefulness. The architecture's appeal relies on subtleties of proportion, color, and texture. Edo Period (1615–1868) THE ART OF LATER JAPAN 27-9 Eastern facade of Katsura Imperial Villa, Kyoto, Edo period, 1620–1663.

14 Figure 21-4 From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN The Rinpa School Emerges: The Edo period painters produced a dazzling variety of styles. Although the Kano School enjoyed official governmental sponsorship, individualist painters and other schools also emerged and flourished. The earliest major alternative school in the Edo period, Rinpa aesthetics and principles attracted a variety of individuals. The term Rinpa is derived from the name of its ostensible founder, Ogata Korin. However, two closely linked artists, HONAMI KOETSU ( ) and Tawaraya Sotatsu (1576–1643), laid its foundations a few generations earlier. Combining Ancient Traditions: Koetsu, heir to a family of sword experts in Kyoto, was a greatly admired calligrapher, and made tea ceramics. He and Sotatsu, proprietor of a fan-painting shop, together drew on ancient traditions of painting and craft decoration to collapse boundaries between the two arts. Most Rinpa works also display knowledge of court literary and material traditions. Koetsu's Boat Bridge writing box exhibits motifs drawn from classical poetry. The lid presents a subtle, gold-on-gold scene of small boats supporting a temporary bridge. The poem describes the experience of crossing such a bridge as evoking reflection on life's insecurities. The box shows the dramatic contrasts marking Rinpa aesthetics.

15 Figure 21-4 From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN HONAMI KOETSU, Boat Bridge, writing box, Edo period, early seventeenth century. Lacquered wood with sprinkled gold and inlay, 9 1/2" X 9" X 4 5/8". Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo.

16 Figure 21-4 From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN Plum Blossoms and Tarashikomi: The son of a textile merchant, OGATA KORIN (1658–1716) took the principles Koetsu and Sotatsu developed into the eighteenth century. In Red and White Plum Blossoms, Korin offers a dramatic contrast of forms and visual textures. The mottling of the trees comes from a signature Rinpa technique called tarashikomi. The contrasting pattern in the stream has the precision and elegant stylization of a textile design produced by applying pigment through a paper stencil OGATA KORIN, Red and White Plum Blossoms, Edo period, ca. 1710–1716. One of pair of twofold screens FIG. Intro-13), ink, color, and gold-and-silver leaf on paper, each screen 5' 1 5/8" X 5' 7 7/8". Museum of Art, Atami.

17 Figure 21-4 From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN The Literati Style: In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Japan's increasingly urban, educated population spurred a cultural and social restlessness among commoners and samurai of lesser rank. People eagerly sought new ideas and images, directing their attention primarily to China, but also to the West. Several Japanese painters and their followers embraced elements of the Chinese literati style. Illustrations in printed books and actual paintings of lesser quality brought limited knowledge of the literati style into Japan. However, the newly seen Chinese models supported emerging ideals of self-expression in painting by offering an alternative to the Kano School's standardized repertoire. One of the outstanding early representatives of Japanese literati painting was YOSA BUSON (1716–1783). He incorporated basic elements of Chinese and Japanese literati style by rounding the landscape forms, rendering their texture in fine fibrous brush strokes, and including dense foliage patterns. Although Buson imitated the vocabulary of brush strokes associated with the Chinese literati, his touch was bolder and more abstract, and the palette of pale colors was his own.

18 Figure 21-4 From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN BUSON, Cuckoo Flying over New Verdure, Edo period, late eighteenth century. Hanging scroll, ink and color on silk, 5' 1/2" X 2' 7 1/4". Riccar Art Museum, Tokyo.

19 Figure 21-4 From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN New Ideas from the West: While the Japanese literati catered to people with an intellectual bent, the school of MARUYAMA OKYO (1733–1795) achieved a wide following among people attracted to naturalism and sheer painterly skill. Okyo looked to a variety of East Asian styles and also to the West. Western approaches to naturalistic depiction had become fairly widely known in Japan by this time. Okyo's Peacocks and Peonies is an outstanding example of his synthesis of naturalism with elements of Kano painting and a type of Chinese painting one might call "decorative naturalism." The combination of rich detail, brilliant colors, and naturalistic modeling appealed to urban sensibilities MARUYAMA OKYO, Peacocks and Peonies, Edo period, Hanging scroll, color on silk, 4' 3 1/3" X 2' 2 7/8". Imperial Household Collection, Tokyo.

20 Figure 21-4 From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN Edo's Floating World: The urban population's restlessness also found an outlet in the popular theaters and pleasure houses of Edo's Yoshiwara brothel district, where prosperous townspeople, as well as many samurai, sought entertainment. Many who participated in the urban culture were also highly educated in literature, music, and the other arts. The best-known products of this sophisticated counterculture are the paintings and (especially) prints whose main subjects come from the ukiyo-e (floating world)—the Yoshiwara brothels and the popular theater. Views of an Ukiyo-e Parlor: One of the most admired and emulated eighteenth-century designers, SUZUKI HARUNOBU (ca. 1725–1770), played a key role in developing some of the earliest brocade prints, pictures printed in many colors. Harunobu applied techniques from his limited-edition commissions to his more commercial prints, and also issued some of the private designs for popular consumption. A sophisticated example is Evening Bell of the Clock, one of Harunobu's parlor-series prints that draw playfully on an ancient Chinese landscape theme, Eight Views of the Xiao and Xiang Rivers. Instead of the traditional temple bell, however, Harunobu depicted a modern clock. This humorous juxtaposition of past and present also displays the cultural sophistication of the floating world's inhabitants. The flatness and rich color recall the traditions of court painting MARUYAMA OKYO, Peacocks and Peonies, Edo period, Hanging scroll, color on silk, 4' 3 1/3" X 2' 2 7/8". Imperial Household Collection, Tokyo.

21 Figure 21-4 From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN SUZUKI HARUNOBU, Evening Bell of the Clock, from Eight Views of the Parlor series, Edo period, ca Woodblock print, 11 1/4" X 8 1/2". Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago.

22 Figure 21-4 From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN Western Perspective in Prints: Another subject, landscapes, often incorporated Western perspective techniques. One of the most famous designers in this genre was KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI (1760–1849). In The Great Wave Off Kanagawa, the huge foreground wave dwarfs distant Mount Fuji. Hokusai places the wave's more traditionally flat and powerfully graphic forms against the low horizon, typical of Western perspective painting KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI, The Great Wave Off Kanagawa, from Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji series, Edo period, ca. 1826–1833. Woodblock print, 9 7/8" X 1' 2 3/4" wide. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

23 Figure 21-4 From The Shoguns to the Present MODERN JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN The Tokugawa shogunate toppled, in part, because of its inability to handle increasing pressure from Western nations for a more open Japan. Sovereignty was restored to the imperial throne, but real power rested with the emperor's cabinet. Japanese leaders emphasized catching up with the West in military capacity, science, and technology. They also promoted Western cultural elements as signs of Japan's status as a "civilized" nation, similar to the emulation of China in the Nara period. The government imported Western architects and artists, who also taught Japanese students. Western Oil Painting: Oil painting became a major genre in the late nineteenth century. Oiran by TAKAHASHI YUICHI (1828–1894), created for a client nostalgic for vanishing elements of Japanese culture, highlights the cultural foment of the early Meiji period. Takahashi portrayed the courtesan's features in the analytical manner of Western portraits, while the more abstract garments reflect traditional portraiture. The Meiji and Taisho Periods ( )

24 Figure 21-4 From The Shoguns to the Present MODERN JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN TAKAHASHI YUICHI, Oiran (grand courtesan), Meiji period, Oil on canvas, 2' 6 1/2" X 1' 9 5/8". Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, Tokyo.

25 Figure 21-4 From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN Resistance to Westernization: Enthusiasm for Westernization led to resistance and concern over a loss of distinctive Japanese identity. The American professor Ernest Fenollosa (1853–1908), a former student named Okakura Kakuzo (1862–1913), and others founded a university dedicated to Japanese arts. They encouraged incorporating some Western techniques in basically Japanese-style paintings. The resulting style was called nihonga (Japanese painting), as opposed to yoga (Western painting). Kutsugen, by YOKOYAMA TAIKAN (1868–1958), provides a good example of nihonga. It combines a low horizon line and subtle shading effects taken from Western painting with East Asian elements in its composition, brushwork techniques, and use of traditional media. The subject, a Chinese poet who falls out of the emperor's favor, may have resonated with Taikan and his associates. The poet suggests the spirit of the early nihonga painters, who resisted powerful forces of change.

26 Figure 21-4 From The Shoguns to the Present MODERN JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN YOKOYAMA TAIKAN, Kutsugen, Meiji period, Hanging scroll, color on silk, 4' 4" X 9' 6". Itsukushima Shrine, Hiroshima Prefecture.

27 Figure 21-4 From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN Developments during the twentieth century brought Japan increasing prominence on the world stage. During the occupation period after World War II, the United States imposed new democratic institutions on Japan, with the emperor serving as a ceremonial head of state. Japan also has taken a positive and productive place in the international art world. As in its earlier relationship to the art and culture of China and Korea, it has internalized Western lessons and transformed them into a part of its own vital culture. A Home for the Olympics: Japanese architects have made major contributions to both modern and postmodern developments. One of the most daringly experimental is KENZO TANGE (b. 1913). For the 1964 Olympic stadiums, he employed a cable suspension system to shape steel and concrete into remarkably graceful structures. His attention to both the sculptural qualities of raw concrete form and the fluidity of space carries on the legacy of the late style of Le Corbusier. The Showa and Heisei Periods (1926–Present)

28 Figure 21-4 From The Shoguns to the Present FEUDAL JAPAN THE ART OF LATER JAPAN KENZO TANGE, national indoor Olympic stadiums, Tokyo, Showa period, 1963–1964


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