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Folk and Popular Culture Chapter 4. Introduction Why do people living in different locations have such different social customs?Why do people living in.

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Presentation on theme: "Folk and Popular Culture Chapter 4. Introduction Why do people living in different locations have such different social customs?Why do people living in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Folk and Popular Culture Chapter 4

2 Introduction Why do people living in different locations have such different social customs?Why do people living in different locations have such different social customs? How are social customs related to the cultural landscape?How are social customs related to the cultural landscape? Folk culture- culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groupsFolk culture- culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups Popular culture- culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristicsPopular culture- culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics

3 Origins of Folk and Popular Culture Social customs originate at a hearth (center of innovation)Social customs originate at a hearth (center of innovation) The hearths of folk customs are often unknown (who, when, and where)The hearths of folk customs are often unknown (who, when, and where) Popular culture is usually a product of MDCs, esp. North America, Western Europe, and JapanPopular culture is usually a product of MDCs, esp. North America, Western Europe, and Japan Ex.’s pop music and fast foodEx.’s pop music and fast food –MDCs have technology to mass produce and the leisure time to enjoy pursuits other than food production

4 Folk vs. Popular Music Difference b/w folk and popular music exemplify the differences b/w folk and pop cultureDifference b/w folk and popular music exemplify the differences b/w folk and pop culture Folk music usually has unknown origins and tells stories of everyday daily activities such as farming, or mysterious events such as earthquakesFolk music usually has unknown origins and tells stories of everyday daily activities such as farming, or mysterious events such as earthquakes Popular music is written and produced by specific individuals to be mass produced and soldPopular music is written and produced by specific individuals to be mass produced and sold –Org. around 1900 in NYC –Really began to spread around the world during WWII –Hip Hop is popular music that has a folk appeal to it

5 Diffusion of Folk and Popular Cultures Popular culture usually spreads thru hierarchical diffusionPopular culture usually spreads thru hierarchical diffusion In the US the nodes would be Hollywood, and Madison Avenue in NYCIn the US the nodes would be Hollywood, and Madison Avenue in NYC –Diffuses rapidly because of modern communication and transportation Folk culture is transmitted more slowly thru relocation diffusion (product of migration)Folk culture is transmitted more slowly thru relocation diffusion (product of migration) –Hip hop considered pop rather than folk because it diffuses thru electronics

6 The Amish: Relocation Diffusion of Folk Culture Have distinctive clothing, farming, and religious practicesHave distinctive clothing, farming, and religious practices Leave a distinctive mark on the cultural landscapeLeave a distinctive mark on the cultural landscape First came to US in 1700s, most to Penn., but also to OH, IL, and IowaFirst came to US in 1700s, most to Penn., but also to OH, IL, and Iowa Diffused slowly to other parts of the US in search of cheap farmlandDiffused slowly to other parts of the US in search of cheap farmland Now have distinctive settlements in 17 statesNow have distinctive settlements in 17 states

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8 Sports: Hierarchical Diffusion of Popular Culture Unfortunately and inexplicably, soccer is the World’s most popular sportUnfortunately and inexplicably, soccer is the World’s most popular sport Early form originated around the eleventh century in EnglandEarly form originated around the eleventh century in England Changed from folk culture to popular culture in the 1800sChanged from folk culture to popular culture in the 1800s Clubs were founded by factories and churches to provide recreation for workersClubs were founded by factories and churches to provide recreation for workers

9 continued 1863 rules were standardized in Great Britain and soccer became a part of pop. Culture1863 rules were standardized in Great Britain and soccer became a part of pop. Culture Soccer was exported to Europe in 1870 and later to parts of the British EmpireSoccer was exported to Europe in 1870 and later to parts of the British Empire All organized spectator sports are part of pop. Culture todayAll organized spectator sports are part of pop. Culture today

10 Isolation Promotes Cultural Diversity Folk customs develop through centuries of relative isolation from customs practiced by other groupsFolk customs develop through centuries of relative isolation from customs practiced by other groups –Ex. Himalayan Art Read about it p. 120Read about it p. 120

11 Influence of the Physical Environment Environmental determinismEnvironmental determinism –Belief that physical environment caused all human activities Not accepted as true today –possibilismNot accepted as true today –possibilism Environment is only one of several controls over social customsEnvironment is only one of several controls over social customs

12 continued Customs such as provision of food, clothing, and shelter are clearly influenced by the climate, soil, and vegetation of a placeCustoms such as provision of food, clothing, and shelter are clearly influenced by the climate, soil, and vegetation of a place Folk cultures are particularly influenced by the environment because they lack technology to overcome itFolk cultures are particularly influenced by the environment because they lack technology to overcome it Broad differences in folk culture arise in part due to physical conditionsBroad differences in folk culture arise in part due to physical conditions Food and shelter can be used to demonstrate the influence of cultural values and the environment on the development of folk cultureFood and shelter can be used to demonstrate the influence of cultural values and the environment on the development of folk culture

13 Distinctive Food Preferences Folk food habits derive from the environmentFolk food habits derive from the environment We eat plants and animals that live and grow in the areas we liveWe eat plants and animals that live and grow in the areas we live In areas where cooking fuel is scarce, cultures come up with clever ways to use the food without much cookingIn areas where cooking fuel is scarce, cultures come up with clever ways to use the food without much cooking Terroir- the contribution of a location’s distinctive physical features to the way food tastesTerroir- the contribution of a location’s distinctive physical features to the way food tastes –often used to describe wine How the soil and climate effect the taste of wine grown in certain regionsHow the soil and climate effect the taste of wine grown in certain regions

14 continued Food customs are also influenced by cultural valuesFood customs are also influenced by cultural values Ethnicity and religious beliefs effect what people eatEthnicity and religious beliefs effect what people eat Food taboos exist in many religionsFood taboos exist in many religions A restriction on behavior imposed by a social customA restriction on behavior imposed by a social custom –Ex. Muslims and Jews don’t eat pork –Just so happens that pigs are suited to live on the Arabian peninsula and is not suited for pastoral societies of Eastern Med. Sea

15 continued Food attractions also existFood attractions also exist –Often thought to enhance desirable qualities Ex. AphrodisiacsEx. Aphrodisiacs –Rhino horn powder, Spanish Fly, chocolate

16 Folk Housing Folk housing is a product of cultural tradition and natural conditionsFolk housing is a product of cultural tradition and natural conditions Obviously, building materials are influenced by what is available in the surrounding environmentObviously, building materials are influenced by what is available in the surrounding environment Size and number of windows, and the pitch of the roof are often environmental concerns as wellSize and number of windows, and the pitch of the roof are often environmental concerns as well

17 continued Form of some houses might reflect religious valuesForm of some houses might reflect religious values –Ex. Sacred walls or corners In parts of China the NW wall is sacredIn parts of China the NW wall is sacred In Madagascar furniture arrangement in the home is influenced by religious valuesIn Madagascar furniture arrangement in the home is influenced by religious values

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19 US Folk House Forms Older houses in US display local folk-culture traditionsOlder houses in US display local folk-culture traditions As people moved west, they built homes similar to where they came from on the East CoastAs people moved west, they built homes similar to where they came from on the East Coast 3 major hearths of folk home forms in US3 major hearths of folk home forms in US 1.New England 2.Middle Atlantic 3.Lower Chesapeake

20 New England 4 major house types popular in 18 th and 19 th centuries Can be found in Great Lakes Region today

21 Middle Atlantic Major type known as an “I-house” –2 stories with gables on the sides –Only one room deep and at least two rooms wide Found in the Ohio Valley and in the Midwest

22 Lower Chesapeake Also known as Tidewater styleAlso known as Tidewater style Typically one story with a steep roof and chimneys at either endTypically one story with a steep roof and chimneys at either end Spread down the SE coastSpread down the SE coast Houses in wet areas were often built on piers to raise it above possible floodingHouses in wet areas were often built on piers to raise it above possible flooding

23 Why is Popular Culture Widely Distributed? Pop culture varies more in time than in place because it diffuses rapidly to places with a sufficiently high level of economic development to acquire the material possessions associated with pop culturePop culture varies more in time than in place because it diffuses rapidly to places with a sufficiently high level of economic development to acquire the material possessions associated with pop culture

24 Diffusion of Popular Housing Housing styles built since the 940s demonstrate how popular customs vary more in time than in placeHousing styles built since the 940s demonstrate how popular customs vary more in time than in place Since the end of WWII two architectural styles have dominated in the USSince the end of WWII two architectural styles have dominated in the US 1.Modern ( ) 2.Neo-eclectic (since 1960)

25 Modern House Styles Specific types of modern house styles were popular at different timesSpecific types of modern house styles were popular at different times Late 1940s and early 1950s minimal transitional was the dominant styleLate 1940s and early 1950s minimal transitional was the dominant style Late 50s into the 60s the ranch style house dominatedLate 50s into the 60s the ranch style house dominated Between the 50s and 70s the split-level become popularBetween the 50s and 70s the split-level become popular

26 Neo-Eclectic House Styles Become popular in the 60s and passes modern styles in the 70sBecome popular in the 60s and passes modern styles in the 70s

27 Rapid Diffusion of Clothing Styles In MDCs clothing habits often reflect occupations rather than particular environmentsIn MDCs clothing habits often reflect occupations rather than particular environments Businessmen wear different clothes than factory workersBusinessmen wear different clothes than factory workers Higher income is also a big influence on clothing in MDCsHigher income is also a big influence on clothing in MDCs –Women’s clothing styles change every year Therefore, they update their wardrobe more often if they can afford itTherefore, they update their wardrobe more often if they can afford it

28 Popular Food Customs Consumption of large quantities of alcoholic bev. and snack foods are characteristic of popular societiesConsumption of large quantities of alcoholic bev. and snack foods are characteristic of popular societies –Regional differences are based upon what is produced locally and cultural backgrounds (esp. religion)

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30 Role of Television in Diffusing Popular Culture Television is an important pop. Custom for 2 reasonsTelevision is an important pop. Custom for 2 reasons 1.Most popular leisure activity in MDCs 2.Most important mechanism by which knowledge of popular culture is rapidly diffused across Earth

31 Diffusion of Television and Internet In 1954 the US had 86% of TVs in the World, UK 9%, USSR 2%, Canada 2%, and the remainder were divided among Cuba, Mexico, France, and BrazilIn 1954 the US had 86% of TVs in the World, UK 9%, USSR 2%, Canada 2%, and the remainder were divided among Cuba, Mexico, France, and Brazil By 1970 rapid growth in ownership in Europe brought the US % down to 25%By 1970 rapid growth in ownership in Europe brought the US % down to 25% –Half the world still had little or no broadcasting (Africa and Asia)

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33 continued Diffusion of the internet followed a similar pattern, just at a much faster paceDiffusion of the internet followed a similar pattern, just at a much faster pace 1995, 25 million of the 40 million internet users in the World were in the US1995, 25 million of the 40 million internet users in the World were in the US By 2000, there were 400 million users, 31% of which were in the USBy 2000, there were 400 million users, 31% of which were in the US Right now only about 10% of users are in LDCs, but that is expected to increase rapidlyRight now only about 10% of users are in LDCs, but that is expected to increase rapidly

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35 Government Control of Television In US, most stations are owned by corporations that receive licenses from the gov. (make profits by selling advertisements)In US, most stations are owned by corporations that receive licenses from the gov. (make profits by selling advertisements) –Some stations are owned by nonprofits or local gov. and are used for educational programs This pattern is found in Western hemisphere countries, but is rare in the rest of the WorldThis pattern is found in Western hemisphere countries, but is rare in the rest of the World In most developed countries broadcasting is done by a public corporation or a public-private partnershipIn most developed countries broadcasting is done by a public corporation or a public-private partnership

36 continued In Canada, the CBC receives gov. grants, and in Britain (BBC) and Japan (NHK) the broadcasting company gets a license fee from TV ownersIn Canada, the CBC receives gov. grants, and in Britain (BBC) and Japan (NHK) the broadcasting company gets a license fee from TV owners –Independence from gov. interference is guaranteed in their charters In LDCs, direct management of TV is done through a gov. agencyIn LDCs, direct management of TV is done through a gov. agency –True in China, India, and many other countries in Asia, and Africa They censor TV to make sure programs will not contradict gov. policiesThey censor TV to make sure programs will not contradict gov. policies

37 Reduced Government Control Television signals are only good for about 60 milesTelevision signals are only good for about 60 miles In the past, few people could actually pick up broadcasts from other countriesIn the past, few people could actually pick up broadcasts from other countries Cable and Satellite have made TV a force for political changeCable and Satellite have made TV a force for political change Many Asian countries try to keep their citizens form obtaining dishesMany Asian countries try to keep their citizens form obtaining dishes –Dishes hastened the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe as more Western programs were able to be seen

38 Why Does the Globalization of Popular Culture Cause Problems? 2 major problems2 major problems 1.Threatens the survival of folk culture 2.Pop culture may be less responsive to the diversity of local environments and consequently may generate adverse environmental impacts

39 Threat to Folk Culture When people turn from folk culture to popular culture they sometimes turn away from traditional values as wellWhen people turn from folk culture to popular culture they sometimes turn away from traditional values as well Can lead to dominance of Western PerspectivesCan lead to dominance of Western Perspectives

40 Loss of Traditional Values Urban people in many African and Asian countries have adopted Western clothingUrban people in many African and Asian countries have adopted Western clothing –It has been adopted a sign of success Causes problems in many Middle Eastern countries who do not want Western influenceCauses problems in many Middle Eastern countries who do not want Western influence Diffusion of pop. Culture also threatens the subservience of women to men that is embedded in many folk customsDiffusion of pop. Culture also threatens the subservience of women to men that is embedded in many folk customs

41 continued Taliban in Afghanistan did not allow women to attend school, work outside the home, or drive a car—also could not leave the home without a male (relative) escortTaliban in Afghanistan did not allow women to attend school, work outside the home, or drive a car—also could not leave the home without a male (relative) escort Pop. Culture has brought ideas of legal equality and economic and social opportunities to many LDCsPop. Culture has brought ideas of legal equality and economic and social opportunities to many LDCs On the negative side, “sex tours” have led to an increase in prostitution in South and Southeast AsiaOn the negative side, “sex tours” have led to an increase in prostitution in South and Southeast Asia

42 Threat of Foreign Media Imperialism Leaders of many LDCs view influx of pop culture as a threat to independenceLeaders of many LDCs view influx of pop culture as a threat to independence –He mass media plays a big role in this Esp. news-gathering organizationsEsp. news-gathering organizations The US, UK, and Japan dominate television in LDCsThe US, UK, and Japan dominate television in LDCs LDC leaders view this as a method of economic and cultural imperialismLDC leaders view this as a method of economic and cultural imperialism American shows present American beliefs and social formsAmerican shows present American beliefs and social forms

43 Western Control of the News Media Diffusion of information to newspapers around the world are dominated by the Associated Press (AP) and ReutersDiffusion of information to newspapers around the world are dominated by the Associated Press (AP) and Reuters Stories that other countries get focus more on news of MDCsStories that other countries get focus more on news of MDCs Many African and Asian gov.’s criticize the idea of freedom of the pressMany African and Asian gov.’s criticize the idea of freedom of the press

44 Environmental Impact of Popular Culture Pop. Culture can significantly modify or control the environmentPop. Culture can significantly modify or control the environment We often modify environments to increase leisureWe often modify environments to increase leisure –Ex. Golf course Avg. about 200 acresAvg. about 200 acres

45 Uniform Landscapes Distribution of pop. culture around the world leads to more uniform landscapesDistribution of pop. culture around the world leads to more uniform landscapes Promoters of pop. culture want a uniform appearance to generate “product recognition”Promoters of pop. culture want a uniform appearance to generate “product recognition” –Ex. Diffusion of fast food restaurants Look similar around the world so travelers can easily identify themLook similar around the world so travelers can easily identify them –Gas stations, supermarkets, and hotels follow a similar pattern

46 continued In 1970s American, European, and Japanese cars all looked very differentIn 1970s American, European, and Japanese cars all looked very different Today they look more similar than differentToday they look more similar than different

47 Negative Environmental Impact 2 ways this might happen2 ways this might happen 1.Depletion of scarce natural resources 2.pollution

48 continued Pop culture demands a large amount of natural resources to manufacture certain goodsPop culture demands a large amount of natural resources to manufacture certain goods Minerals can be over mined and animals can become endangered in the name of pop cultureMinerals can be over mined and animals can become endangered in the name of pop culture Pop culture generates a high volume of waste— solids, liquids, and gases Solid waste is particularly problematic


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