5 Culture (Schein)“Pattern of basic assumptions-invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration-that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems” (textbook, p. 88)
6 CultureBoth the ideology of a society and the actual, concrete practices that occur in a society.Man is an animal suspended in webs of significance which he himself has spun. Culture is the web.The totality of socially transmitted and constructed behavior patterns, arts, beliefs , institutional habits, & all other products of human work and thought characteristics of a community or population.
7 CultureCulture consists of the abstract values, beliefs, practices, & perceptions that lie behind people’s behavior.They are often shared by members of a society, & when acted on produce behavior considered acceptable by the community.
8 Overview Something an organization has Something an organization is Something an organization doesSomething that impacts organizational and individual identityAn org. is greater than the things that make it up!!!!
9 Strong cultures (Deal and Kennedy) Prescriptive Approach: Seek to Explain What’s Wrong & Prescribe a SolutionStrong cultures (Deal and Kennedy)ValuesBeliefsHeroesExemplify an org.’s valuesRites and ritualsCeremoniesCultural networkCommunication system through which cultural values are instituted and inforced
10 Excellent Cultures-Themes (Peter & Waterman) A bias for action Prescriptive Approach: Seek to Explain What’s Wrong & Prescribe a SolutionExcellent Cultures-Themes (Peter & Waterman)A bias for actionClose relations to the customerAutonomy and entrepreneurshipProductivity through peopleHands on, value-drivenStick to the knittingSimple form, lean staffSimultaneous loose-tight properties
11 Descriptive Approach: Seek to Describe & Understand Individuals make sense of their world through their communicative behaviorsSeek to describe an organization’s unique sense of placeDistinction b/t prescriptive and descriptiveCulture is complicatedCulture is emergent-socially constructedCulture is not unitaryco-cultures w/in org.Cultural penetration (slices)Culture is not static
12 Schein’s Model of Organizational Culture Org. culture is complexGroup phenomenonCommunication is important in developing, maintaining, and displaying culturePattern of basic assumptionsOften ambiguousCulture is emergent and developmental
13 Scheins’s Levels of Culture Level I: Behaviors and artifactsManifestations of the cultureMarkers such as communicative behavior, objects, thingsLevel II: ValuesPreferences of what ought to happenLevel III: Basic assumptionsCore beliefs/world views
14 Methods of InquiryObject of inquiry should drive method of assessment (refer to the reading by Burke posted on the additional reading page)Empirically, traditional research in organizations has been quantitativeQualitative research is also useful in getting at changing nature of cultureEthnography, Observation, & InterviewsFor consultants, this is often the first step of a Communication Audit in an organization
15 Check it out! Case in Point-Red Sox Nation (p. 83) Spotlight on Scholarship (p. 86)Case Study-The Cultural Tale of Two Shuttles (p. 97)