Presentation on theme: "The Instructional Design Process November 9, 2000."— Presentation transcript:
The Instructional Design Process November 9, 2000
Learning & Instruction Define learning Define learning Development of new KSA Permanent change in behavior Define instruction Define instruction Arrangement of the environment (media- presented information) to facilitate learning
Instructional Need How do you know if you have one? How do you know if you have one? Performance need is gap between existing and desired behavior Instructional need is a performance need that can be solved by instruction (rather than changes in resources, personnel, etc.)
Instructional design is... The systematic process of translating principles of learning and instruction into specifications for instructional materials and activities-Smith & Ragan The systematic process of translating principles of learning and instruction into specifications for instructional materials and activities-Smith & Ragan Producing a solution to an instructional problem-Lockee Producing a solution to an instructional problem-Lockee
What does a designer do? The primary role of the designer is to: Decide what is important for students to learn. Decide what is important for students to learn. Effectively arrange the learning environment (media) to maximize the probability of individual student learning (permanent changes in behavior). Effectively arrange the learning environment (media) to maximize the probability of individual student learning (permanent changes in behavior).
Instructional Design is based on.. General Systems Theory General Systems Theory A set of interrelated and acting parts that work together toward a common goal Educational Psychology Theory Educational Psychology Theory From Behaviorism to Constructivism Communication Theory Communication Theory Sender, receiver, feedback Instructional Theory Instructional Theory
What are the advantages of ID? Focus on what learner will be able to do as a result of the instruction Focus on what learner will be able to do as a result of the instruction Linkage between components Linkage between components Empirical and replicable process Empirical and replicable process Produces consistent instruction Produces consistent instruction Facilitates effective assessment methods Facilitates effective assessment methods Applicable across settings Applicable across settings
ID Process: Step by Step Needs analysis Needs analysis Determine instructional goal Determine instructional goal Analyze the instructional goal Analyze the instructional goal Necessary entry behaviors Step-by-step goal performance Analyze learners and contexts Analyze learners and contexts Prior knowledge Learning environment Application of skills and knowledge
Components of Systems Approach Write performance objectives Write performance objectives Very specific and measureable Some include conditions Develop assessment instruments Develop assessment instruments Emphasis on accurately measuring behaviors Now rather than later...
Components of Systems Approach Develop instructional strategies Develop instructional strategies Presentation of information Practice and feedback Testing Follow-up activities Develop instruction Develop instruction Creation of materials Deliverables which exemplify previous steps
Components of Systems Approach Conduct formative evaluation of instruction Conduct formative evaluation of instruction One-to-one prototype testing Small group evaluation Field testing Revise instruction Revise instruction Data from formative evaluation used to assess whole process Conduct summative evaluation Conduct summative evaluation
Or simply put... Design Design Develop Develop Evaluate Evaluate Sometimes called “Instructional Development” Sometimes called “Instructional Development”
Basic ID Model Dick & Carey, 1966
ID Resources Dick, W. & Carey, L. (1996). The systematic design of instruction (4th ed.). New York: HarperCollins College Publishers. Smith, P. & Ragan, T. (1999). Instructional design (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. Gagne, R., Briggs, L., & Wager, W. (1992). Principles of instructional design (4th ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. Shambaugh, R., & Magliaro, S. (1997). Mastering the possibilities: A process approach to instructional design. Allyn & Bacon: Boston.