2Exemplification The action of giving examples Commonly used in academic writingThere are several ways of referring to examples, not just the expression for example or e.g. (although these are the most common)
3Commonly used abbreviations f.e. / e.g. – for examplei.e. – that is (to say); in other wordsviz. – namely; it is/they aree.g. There are four language skills, viz. listening, speaking, reading and writing.
4What is Language? Read the text What is Language (p. 39) The definition:A language is a signalling system which operates with symbolic vocal sounds, and which is used by a group people for the purposes of communication.
5Finding exemplifiersRead the text again and circle all the expressions which have the same meaning as for exampleDraw a line under all the examples
6For example, many birds utter warning calls.. Such as expressions of anger, fear and pleasureFor instance, animals’ cries are not articulateFor example, the kind of structure given by the contrast between vowels and consonantsIllustration of this is a soldier who can saye.g. ‘tanks approaching from the north’The great tit is a case in point
7Complete the sentences using: illustration, for example, a case in point, an example, for instance, such asAt the approach of danger many birds utter warning calls: this is _______ of animals communicating with each other.Cries, ____________ those of anger, fear and pleasure, are uttered by apes.There are important differences between human language and animal communication: ___________, animals’ cries are not articulate.Animals’ cries lack, ____________, the kind of structure that enables us to divide a human utterance into words.A good _________ of changing an utterance by substituting one word for another is a soldier who can say...The number of signals that an animal can make is very limited: the great tit is __________________.
8At the approach of danger many birds utter warning calls: this is AN EXAMPLE of animals communicating with each other.Cries, SUCH AS those of anger, fear and pleasure, are uttered by apes.There are important differences between human language and animal communication: FOR INSTANCE, animals’ cries are not articulate.Animals’ cries lack, FOR EXAMPLE, the kind of structure that enables us to divide a human utterance into words.A good ILLUSTRATION of changing an utterance by substituting one word for another is a soldier who can say...The number of signals that an animal can make is very limited: the great tit is A CASE IN POINT.
9Exercise 3Read the following carefully (especially the part in italics):There are now over two thousand different languages in the world; an examination of them shows that many of them belong to a group of related languages, and some of these groups are very large, constituting what we can call language families. An example of such a family is the Semitic group of languages. Examples of members of the family are Arabic and Hebrew.
10Write out a sentence or two substituting the following: Germanic – e.g. English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian
11Vocabulary aid Alternatives to the word examples: cases, instances Other commonly used verb forms and methods of expression:This is shown/exemplified/illustrated byX shows/exemplifies/illustrates thisWriters such as (such writers as) X and Y
12Classification Dividing something into groups, classes or categories Classification is normally made according to a criterion or several criteria (e.g. age, size, number...)
13Read the text State Schools in England and Wales (p. 43) Complete Exercise 1 below the text
14Answer keySchools can be classified according to the pupils’ ages and type of education.There are two types of school: primary and secondary.Primary schools can be subdivided into infant and junior schools.Secondary school pupils may be grouped according to their ability.The criterion for classifying secondary schools is whether or not there is an examination.
15Exercise 2 (p. 44) – put the sentences in the correct order
17Write a brief description of the education system in your country!
18Pyramid DiscussionWhich purposes of compulsory education are the most important?Read the list on p. 47 and select from it; the order of the choices is not important.Add one or more purposes of your own.
19ExerciseWrite a brief description of the criteria that should be used for determining if education has been successful!