2.Challenges caused by urbanization Rapid land use changes, reforms Rapid land use changes, reforms Environmental degradation (water resources, soil, biodiversity, etc.), more vulnerable agriculture ecosystems Environmental degradation (water resources, soil, biodiversity, etc.), more vulnerable agriculture ecosystems Threatening Food security, growing demand for food and energy Threatening Food security, growing demand for food and energy Migration/immigration from rural to urban Migration/immigration from rural to urban Pressures on existing urban infrastructures Pressures on existing urban infrastructures More environmental conflicts in natural resources use More environmental conflicts in natural resources use ??? ???
3.How to response to sustainable urbanization of rural area? Sustainable model of rural development, sustainable agriculture ecosystems :GIAHS- Satoyama, Rice-fish agriculture, … Sustainable model of rural development, sustainable agriculture ecosystems :GIAHS- Satoyama, Rice-fish agriculture, … Sound scientific urbanization planning, sustainable land use planning … Sound scientific urbanization planning, sustainable land use planning … Area – based collaboration research Area – based collaboration research Optimal ratio of rural/urban areas Optimal ratio of rural/urban areas Agriculture intensification Agriculture intensification ??? ???
Topics 1) Vulnerability of Agricultural Production under the Rapid Urbanization Process in China Xiangzheng Deng, Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Xiangzheng Deng, Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China 2) Area-Based Collaborative Research: Toward Sustainable Development in Rural Thailand Silaporn Buasai and Chancharat Reodecha, Thailand Research Fund Silaporn Buasai and Chancharat Reodecha, Thailand Research Fund 3) Land Reform, Land Uses and Rural Environment: A Case of Vietnam Ha Thuc Vien, Nong Lam University, Vietnam Ha Thuc Vien, Nong Lam University, Vietnam 4) Urban-rural Development and Associated Changes in Ecosystem Services in Japan Osamu Saito, Waseda University Osamu Saito, Waseda University
Introduction (1) In some last decades, Asia have been developed very fast in terms of economic growth, living condition of local people, and other related issues (Table 1). 2003200420052006200720082009 Central Asia9.29.311.6184.108.40.206.4 East Asia220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 South Asia7.87.3922.214.171.124 Southeast Asia126.96.36.1996.55.76 The Pacific188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 Average220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 Table 1. Asian Development Outlook 2008 GDP Table Source: Asian Development Bank, 2008
Introduction (2) In terms of economic growth, there are some countries in all regions of Asia that they have been developed with very high GDP rate (Table 2). 2003200420052006200720082009 Central Asia9.29.311.622.214.171.124.4 Armenia14.010.513.913.313.710.08.0 Turkmenistan126.96.36.199 10.0 East Asia188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 China, People's Rep. of10.010.110.411.111.410.09.8 Hong Kong, China3.08.57.17.06.34.54.8 South Asia220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 Afghanistan15.19.422.214.171.124.0 India126.96.36.199.68.78.08.5 Southeast Asia188.8.131.52.06.55.76.0 Cambodia8.510.013.510.89.67.57.0 Viet Nam184.108.40.206.28.57.08.1 The Pacific220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 Papua New Guinea22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 Solomon Islands6.48.05.06.110.06.02.5 Table 2. GDP Rate of some countries in Asia
Introduction (3) According to Steven Radelet (Harvard Institute for International Development) et al., Asian economic, especially East Asia Region, has rapid growth since the 1960s because of 4 main reasons: 1) Asian countries had substantial potential for catching up (since the entered the 1960s with relatively low incomes and relatively well-educated workers) 2) their geographical and structural characteristics were by-and-large favorable, demographic changes following World War II worked in favor of more rapid growth 3) Their economic policies and strategy were conducive to sustained growth 4) Most importantly, the high-performing East Asian countries recognized the imperative of joining the world economy through the promotion of labor- intensive manufactured exports Source: Asian Development Bank’s study Emerging Asia: Changes and Challenges - 1997
Introduction (4) Beside the fruitful results of rapid economic growth, Asian countries have been facing the challenges and problems such as: 1) Rapid urbanization process impacts on local people, especially on people and communities in suburb regions (Figure 1). Figure 1. Change in the urbanization rate 1990-2008 Source: Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2008
Introduction (4) 2) The distance between rich and poor people is large. This happens not only in capitalist countries but also in transitional countries as China and Vietnam. The results are some “new classes” appear in social, e.g: billionaire, homeless, landless,… 3) Environmental problems in urban and rural regions due to industrial development,… 4) The development without planning in developing countries is leading problems such as: i) the number of landless and poor people is increasing; ii) land fragmentation and related problems, iii) food security and sustainability agricultural production; iv) seasonal and unplanned migration (rural – urban, rural – rural, and urban – urban),…
Disscussion Based on the 4 papers, which will be presented later, we will focus on some key points as the followings: 1.The role of agriculture in Asian countries: - Sustainable agricultural production - Agriculture and livelihood - Agriculture and Climate change - Agriculture and environment - -… 2. Land use and related problems - Land use planning in the context of sustainable development - Land reform and its impact on rural development - Land reform and landless people in Asian rural regions -…
Disscussion 3. Urban-rural development - Impact of urbanization in urban and rural regions - Migration: seasonal and planned migration - Urban landless people - Rural landless people - Homeless and slum in Asian cities -… 4. Rural sustainable development - Sustainable development and rural livelihood: GIAHS, modern SATOYAMA, Kebul talen, VAC( garden-fish pond- livestock- sustainable house)… - Social organizations and their roles in rural development -….