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Volunteer Monitoring of Atrazine in Wisconsin Lakes Paula E. Allen, Ph.D., PG Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection 2811 Agriculture.

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Presentation on theme: "Volunteer Monitoring of Atrazine in Wisconsin Lakes Paula E. Allen, Ph.D., PG Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection 2811 Agriculture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Volunteer Monitoring of Atrazine in Wisconsin Lakes Paula E. Allen, Ph.D., PG Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection 2811 Agriculture Drive P. O. Box 8911 Madison, WI

2 Overview n n General Introduction n n Study Objectives and Design n n Volunteer Involvement n n Preliminary Results n n Future Directions

3 Atrazine and Metabolites  High water solubility  Volatile  High mobility  High leaching potential  Persistent in water  Most studied pesticide

4 US pesticide use ( )

5 Atrazine Use in the Midwest (percent of total applied)

6 Wisconsin Agriculture  primarily applied to corn  Wisconsin is a major corn producing state  16 million farm acres  3.4 million corn acres  1.8 million lbs atrazine applied  Used on road rights-of-way until 1990

7  15,000 lakes.  12,600 rivers and streams  12% corn acres planted near water annually  50% of each Wisconsin watershed on average used for agriculture Wisconsin Water Resources Rock Lake

8 Why Interest in Atrazine?  Ubiquitous in the Environment  No surface water standards.  No formal monitoring of lakes or lake sediments.  Inadequate monitoring of streams that flow into lakes.  Endocrine disruption.  Affects at low concentrations (0.1 µg/L or ppb).  EPA draft water quality criteria (12 µg/L)  Proxy for similar pesticides.

9 ATRAZINE WISCONSIN’S ENVIRONMENT µg/L 6ng-12µg/L 0-84 µg/L µg/L

10 PREVIOUS SAMPLING WHEN? nSpring and Late Summer n WHAT? nAtrazine by EPA Method 8670 RaPID © Assay Rock Lake, Kenosha Co., 2001

11 Highest where agriculture occurs in riparian areas Range = ND to 0.7 µg/L Median = 0.1 µg/L

12 Bottom water concentrations>Surface water concentrations

13 Study Objectives and Design n Self-help lakes planned for sampling in 2005 n Lakes across an agricultural land use gradient ( 75) n 21 feet deep n Single basin lakes a.Survey of larger number of lakes to fill major knowledge gap. b.Look specifically at agricultural impacts.

14 Agricultural Land Use Intensity Wisconsin Agriculture Statistics Service 2005

15 Study Stages n n Collaborate with DNR to involve volunteer lake monitors in sampling effort n n Identify lakes for sampling n n Reserve test kits n n Contact volunteers and identify final lake/participant list n n Response from volunteers n n Coordinate kit dissemination with State Hygiene Lab n n Late summer sampling window (August and September) n n Obtain results from state lab n n Analyze data (lake characteristics, land use intensity) n n Result letters to participants

16 We contacted 11% of sites planned for sampling

17 62.8%

18 48.6%

19 Frequency Distribution of Atrazine Concentrations

20 Preliminary Results 13 Aug – 22 Sept 2005 n Detects in over 90% of the lakes sampled n Less than 10% of the lakes were atrazine free n No detects over the drinking water standard of 3 µg/L but highest concentration (0.4 µg/L) is probably n Less than 2% over the PAL n No detects over proposed Water Quality Criteria of 12 µg/L

21 Acknowledgements WALT HALLEN, ALYSON & PAUL KAPOLNEK, JERRY KOPSTEIN, RICHARD RUDOLPH, GAIL NORDLOF, DONNA SEFTON, BEVERLY RAWLINGS, RICHARD LATHROP, JIM AND CHARLOTTE BARR, DENNIS VANDER WERFF, ERNIE AND GAYLE CHIODO, STEVE SHEETS, HOWARD LANG, JAMES BRAKKEN, KEN RICHTER, LUCY HARR, RETA & BRUCE NAGLE, JOE MCDANIEL, GEORGE WISDOM, JOHN SELAK, TONI PONTAR, JOHN VOLLRATH, RICK BJODSTRUP, TOM ARNISON, TONI PONTAR, JERRY KABELOWSKY, JANA CHARVAT, DORIS RUSCH, HUGH GILGENBACH, JUDY WAGNER, SUE & CHRIS DEMENT, TOM HINKES, JACK NEUHAUSER, AL DEPIES, PAUL PITRE, JIM GRUMBECK, DON HASSLER, STEVE, TRACEY, KIM, CHLOE & PAT MAYER, ROBERT HANNEMAN, MARIETTE NOWAK, BOB BURFORD, BLAKE PLUEMER, ROD ANDREASEN, CAROL ALCOE, DORIS RUSCH, JEN FILBERT, TIM ASPLUND

22 Study Stages n n Collaborate with DNR to involve volunteer lake monitors in sampling effort n n Identify lakes for sampling n n Reserve test kits n n Contact volunteers and identify final lake/participant list n n Response from volunteers n n Coordinate kit dissemination with State Hygiene Lab n n Late summer sampling window (August and September) n n Obtain results from state lab  Analyze data (lake characteristics, land use intensity)  Result letters to participants

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24 Wisconsin Lakes Recent Projects Media Sample Date Maximum Triazine Levels USGS (Scribner et al 1996; Open- File Report ) 10 WI sites including Madison Area Lakes Atrazine, DEA and DIA by GC/MS Monthly 3/92 – 2/ ug/L (Lake Mendota, Dane Co.) SE Wisconsin Lakes (Allen) 13 Lakes RaPid TZ Assays April-May 2002 Aug-Sept ug/L (Rock Lake, Kenosha Co.) 0.6 ug/L (Hooker Lake, Kenosha Co.) Portage County Lakes (Turyk and Markham, per. comm) 29 Lakes RaPid TZ Assays July ug/L (Stratton Lake, Waupaca Co.) USGS Solomon et al 1996 (reference. from Graymore et al 2001) Midwestern Reservoirs GC/MS 11.9 ug/L EPA/USGS Great Lakes 60 ng/L Lake Michigan 6 ng/L Isle Royale Lakes

25 Volunteer Response to Participation Requests

26 Impacts of Atrazine on Aquatic Ecosystems (Graymore et al. 2001) n Inhibits photosynthesis. n Sensitivity to exposure varies with species n Decreases biomass and abundance. n Modifies normal seasonal succession of organisms. n Decreases reproduction, fecundity and growth. n Decreases diversity. n Changes dominance n Modifies predator/prey ratios and guild structures. n Modifies ecosystem function. n Alters organism behavior. n Causes deformities. n Promotes habitat losses.

27 Impacts of Atrazine on Aquatic Ecosystems (Graymore et al 2001) Different taxa and species within taxa vary in their sensitivity to chronic and acute exposure and may be affected both directly and indirectly by exposure. n Inhibits photosynthesis. n Decreases biomass and abundance. n Modifies normal seasonal succession of organisms. n Decreases reproduction, fecundity and growth. n Modifies community structure (decreases diversity, changes dominance, modifies predator/prey ratios and guild structures). n Modifies ecosystem function. n Alters organism behavior. n Causes deformities. n Promotes habitat losses.

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29 Why the Current Interest ? n nHayes et al – –Implicated atrazine in amphibian declines. – –Affects apparent at low concentrations (0.1 ppb). n nGraymore et al – –Other ecosystem level problems caused at ecologically relevant doses. n nUbiquitous in the environment (surface water, groundwater, soil and air). n nNo surface water quality criteria or standards (proposed 12 ug/L). n nEPA reviewing re-registration eligibility (IRED) for atrazine because of potential endocrine disruption. n nToxicology data not based on mixtures which can have significant environmental impacts. n nAtrazine is a proxy for other pesticides that can tell us about movement and fate of pesticides in the environment. n nNo state or federal surface water standards. n nEPA draft WQC of 12 ug/L is higher than levels reported to have significant affects on ecosystem structure and function.

30 Why the Current Interest ? Ubiquitous in the Environment No surface water standards. No formal monitoring of lakes or lake sediments. Inadequate monitoring. Endocrine Disruption. Affects at low concentrations (0.1 ppb). EPA draft water quality criteria (12 µg/L)


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