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Mike Bryant First Lutheran Church.  Course Overview Or Old Testament History in 2 Slides or Less.

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Presentation on theme: "Mike Bryant First Lutheran Church.  Course Overview Or Old Testament History in 2 Slides or Less."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mike Bryant First Lutheran Church

2  Course Overview Or Old Testament History in 2 Slides or Less

3  1.Origins: the Israelites before ca B.C.  Sojourn in Egypt  The Exodus  Emergence in Canaan 2.Toward a kingdom ( B.C.)  Era of the Judges  The Philistines  Foundation of the monarchy  David & Solomon Course Overview

4  3.The Kingdom Divided  Israel: the northern kingdom ( B.C.)  Israel falls to the Assyrians  Judah: the southern kingdom ( B.C.)  The Babylonian captivity 4.A Conquered People  Persian rule: Cyrus the Great ( B.C.)  Greek rule: Alexander, Ptolemies and Seleucids ( B.C.)  Independence under the Maccabees ( B.C.)  Roman rule Course Overview

5   Egypt & Canaan  Trade, then migration, then hostilities  Hyksos (Canaanite) rule (1650 B.C. – 1550 B.C.)  Dating the Exodus  No firm evidence, biblical or otherwise  Stela of Pharaoh Merneptah, 1208 B.C. mentions Israel  Israelite origins  Archaeological record begins 1200 B.C.  Links to Hyksos and habiru Review 1

6  Toward a Kingdom

7   By 1200 B.C. a people calling themselves Israel and/or Hebrews existed in Canaan  Multiple tribes but belief in a common ancestor: Abraham  Belief in a shared history: the Exodus  Worship one god: Yahweh Defining Israelite

8  The Cult of Yahweh  YHWH: the Hebrew name for God  No vowels in ancient Hebrew  Original pronunciation unknown  Yahweh most common rendering  Jehovah another  Yahweh the god who revealed himself to Abraham & Moses  Covenant between Yahweh and Israelites  An “exclusivity agreement”

9  The Cult of Yahweh  Midianite origins?  Midian one of Abraham’s sons ( Genesis 25)  Moses visits Midian after fleeing Egypt Moses was minding the flock of his father-in-law Jethro, priest of Midian. He led the flock along the side of the wilderness and came to Horeb, the mountain of God. There the angel of the Lord appeared to him in the flame of a burning bush. Exodus 3:1-2

10  The Cult of Yahweh  Possible Egyptian references to a god named Yahweh  13 th century BC  Shasu-Bedu—southeast of Dead Sea & Sinai

11  The Cult of Yahweh  Monotheism or henotheism?  Henotheism: only one god is worshipped but existence of other gods is acknowledged Then Moses and the Israelites sang this song to the Lord… Who among the gods, O Lord, is like you? Exodus 15 Among the gods, not one is like you, O Lord… Psalms 86:8 You shall have no other god to set against me…you shall not bow down to them or worship them, for I, the Lord your God, am a jealous god. Exodus 20

12  The Cult of Yahweh  The Tabernacle: original shrine of Yahweh  Hebrew for “dwelling place”—i.e., for the Divine presence  A tent constructed according to God’s specifications, described in Exodus  An outer chamber and  the holy of holies

13  The Cult of Yahweh  The Ark of the Covenant  Holds tablets containing 10 commandments  God’s throne? From the cover, between the two Cherubim over the Ark, I shall deliver to you all my commands to Israelites. Exodus 25:22 The Ark of God, which bears the name of The Lord of Hosts, who is enthroned upon the cherubim 2 Samuel 6:2

14  The Cult of Yahweh  The Ark of the Covenant  Priests of Yahweh carry it before the army to ensure victory When they came to a certain threshing floor, the oxen [transporting the Ark] stumbled, and Uzzah reached out to the Ark of God and took hold of it. The Lord was angry with Uzzah and struck him down for his rash act. 2 Samuel 6:6-7

15   Bible presents judges as a series of 12 national leaders  Reality is probably that judges were local, leading their tribe, or possibly a confederation of a few tribes  The Song of Deborah (Ch5), describing a battle, lists 10 tribes, 4 of whom did not join the fight  Later chapters describe fighting amongst the tribes  Abimelech described as “prince over Israel for 3 years” (Ch9) but details of his rise and fall are all localized in Shechem The Judges

16   What is a biblical judge?  No concept of permanent government  Settling disputes only peacetime “government”  Judge=Hebrew word shaphet  Local wise folk gain authority by charisma and reputation for fairness The Judges At that time Deborah wife of Lappidoth, a prophetess, was judge in Israel. It was her custom to sit beneath the Palm-tree of Deborah and the Israelites went up to her for justice. Judges 4:4-5

17   What is a biblical judge?  No concept of permanent government  Charisma equated with divine favor: “the Spirit of Yahweh” was upon them  Deborah described also as a prophetess  Office of judge not hereditary; 12 described arise spontaneously in different tribes The Judges

18   What is a biblical judge?  Occasional military leaders  “Judge” only concept of a leader though judging and military leadership very different  Same wise charismatic people trusted to judge are turned to in times of military crisis The Judges

19   Growing distinction between military and judicial leaders without corresponding terminology  Deborah  Female judge but as a woman cannot lead army  Appoints Barak to act as general  Barak agrees only on condition that she accompany him  She warns that his eventual victory will bring him no glory because the enemy will “fall into the hands of a woman;” he goes anyway  Song of Deborah (Ch5) considered oldest fragment in the Bible—very similar to ancient Canaanite battle poems The Judges

20   Growing distinction between military and judicial leaders without corresponding terminology  Gideon  Midianites have conquered “Israel”  Gideon arises as a military hero apparently out of nowhere: “look at my clan: it is the weakest in Manasseh and I am the least in my father’s family”  Gideon’s people try to offer him permanent leadership and a dynasty The Judges

21   Growing distinction between military and judicial leaders without corresponding terminology  Gideon  Midianites have conquered “Israel”  Gideon arises as a military hero apparently out of nowhere: “look at my clan: it is the weakest in Manasseh and I am the least in my father’s family”  Gideon’s people try to offer him permanent leadership and a dynasty The Judges

22   What is happening during the era of the Judges?  Conflict and co-existence with Canaanites  Battles against Canaanite kings, absorption of Canaanite territory  Deborah/Barak vs. Jabin, Canaanite King of Hazor  Apparent peaceful blending with Canaanites as evidenced by repeated flirtation with pagan cults of Baal and Asherah  Judge Gideon also has a Canaanite name: Jerub-Baal (let Baal plead)  Bible explains this as a nickname for tearing down Baal’s altar The Judges

23   What is happening during the era of the Judges?  Conflicts with Trans-Jordanian peoples:  Arameans, Amonnites, Moabites, Midianites  Israelites—or at least some tribes—temporarily succumb to foreign rulers  Conflicts among the Israelite tribes  “All the Israelites from Dan to Beersheba” join forces against Benjamites  Punishment for disturbing story in chapter 19  Conflicts with the Philistines The Judges

24   One of the “Sea Peoples” described by the Egyptians  Vikings of the Mediterranean world  Egyptian word is Peleset  Generally equated to Aegean Pelasgians  Inhabitants of Greece and/or Western Asia Minor  Archaeological finds similar to Mycenaean Greece  First mentioned by Homer in The Iliad as allies of Troy The Philistines "I will tell you truly all," replied Dolon. "To the seaward lie the Carians, the Paeonian bowmen, the Leleges, the Cauconians, and the noble Pelasgi.” The Iliad, Book X

25   Carve out a niche in southwestern Palestine (modern Gaza strip) beginning around 1200 B.C.  “Palestine” derived from Philistine  Possibly settled as vassals by Egypt  Five city-states The Philistines

26   Conflict with Israelites: Dan  Philistia’s northern neighbor  Samson a Danite  Migration of Dan The Philistines

27   Capture the Ark  Philistines camp near Aphek  Israelites take Ark from Shiloh, hoping for divine assistance in battle  Philistines rout Israelites, kill sons of Priest Eli  Move Ark from town to town, but Yahweh plagues locals with hemorrhoids  Finally move Ark into temple of major god, Dagon  Statue of Dagon found prostrated before Ark, twice  Philistines rid themselves of the Ark The Philistines

28   A response to Philistine threat  Samuel, king-maker  Judge and prophet  Saul, a Benjamite, chosen  Anointed by Samuel  Initial victory over Amonites  Early victories over Philistines  Breaks their strangle-hold on iron trade The Monarchy

29   David & Saul  Lyre-player in Saul’s court  Soothes king when “evil spirit” afflicted him  Fells the Philistine giant Goliath  Slays 200 Philistines to earn princess’s hand  His military successes earn Saul’s jealousy  David and his band flee into the wilderness  Becomes a mercenary leader, fights for Philistines David

30   David King (ca B.C.)  Saul dies in battle  Ish-Bosheth succeeds but Judah recognizes David  Ish-Bosheth murdered, kingdom united  David’s conquests  Zenith of Israel’s political power  Jebusite (Canaanite) city of Jerusalem—David’s capital David

31   Solomon King (ca B.C.)  Disputed succession  Son of David’s Jebusite wife, Bathsheba  Continues David’s glory  Builds Temple  Respected world leader  Marries Pharaoh’s daughter  Allied with Hiram of Tyre  Visited by Queen of Sheba Solomon

32   Decline begins  Loses Aram in north and Edom  Revolt of Jeroboam  Foreman of forced laborers  Conspires against Solomon, is discovered and flees to Egypt Solomon


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