Presentation on theme: "American Anthropology THE BEGINNING OF ANTHROPOLOGY IN AMERICAN AND CORE CONCEPTS."— Presentation transcript:
American Anthropology THE BEGINNING OF ANTHROPOLOGY IN AMERICAN AND CORE CONCEPTS
Learning Objectives 1) Develop a timeline for emergence of American anthropology 2) Recognize the influence of European scholars on American anthropology 3) Distinguish between early ideas of cultural and biological variation and current understanding of such processes. (Note: represents a course theme) 4) Describe the scientific method and how it is used to develop theories of cultural change and diversity.
Unlinear Evolutionism ‘Armchair’ Anthropologists [Note: As emphasis on scientific methodology grew, both methods and ‘theories’ were challenged]
Unlinear Evolutionism Result of ‘Armchair’ Anthropology = _________ __________________________________________ Cultures evolve in a ____________towards an end ________________________________ Cultural traits have a __________________
Unlinear Evolutionism Louis Henjry Morgan Example: Polynesians of the Solomon Islands
Unlinear Evolutionism E. B. Tylor Checkpoint: What does ‘living fossils’ mean?
Historical Particularism Four-Field Approach Emphasized different __________ Focused on demonstrating that _________ ____________________________
Historical Particularism Historical Particularism Emphasized that _______________________________ Cultures should be ____________________________ Methods of cultural analysis = ____________ Rejected _______________________
Historical Particularism Franz Boas -- Father of American Anthropology Cultures _______________________________ _____________________________________ Emphasized _______________ Checkpoint: How is diffusion defined in cultural anthropology? ______________________________________ Example: Subsistence practice
Functionalism Emphasizes the ________________________________ Challenged both __________________________ Important scholars: Malinowski (Father of Ethnography) Radcliffe-Brown
Functionalism Malinowski, a Functionalist because of: _______________________________ ____________________________________ _____________________________________ _________________ Cultural customs are____________________________
Structural Functionalism Radcliffe-Brown Role that _______________________________________ Theoretical category of _______________________ Culture & cultural practices ________________, which is maintained by the _____________________________ Viewed _________________________________________
Functionalism Functionalism – Still Present in Anthropology Despite challenges to the general theme, a form of functionalism is still a very active perspective in anthropology “…there are social & cultural systems and that their elements…are functionally related so that they covary,” (Kottak, 2013, p.65)
Configurationalism Culture viewed ______________________________ Pulled from both ___________________________________ ________________ is not automatic ___________________________________________ Considered to be part of ________________ anthropology Scholars: Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead
Interpretive Anthropology Geertz _______________________________ ____________________________________ Known for his 1973 Balinese cockfighting essay
Structuralism Levi-Strauss Idea of structuralism evolved over time ______________________, giving shape to seemingly disparate cultures and creations Main universal structure = ___________________________ Used ___________________to emphasis his point Underlying ________________________
Various Theoretical Perspectives – 20 th century ScholarTheoretical School of Thought MorganUnilinear Evolutionism TylorUnilinear Evolutionism BoasHistorical Particularism, Father of American Anthropology MalinowskiFunctionalism, Father of Ethnography Radcliffe-BrownStructural Functionalism BenedictConfigurationalism, Student of Boas MeadConfigurationalism, Student of Boas WhiteNeoevolution StewardNeoevolution, specifically Cultural Ecology HarrisCultural Materialism DurkheimConscience collectif, or ‘Collective Consciousness’ TurnerSymbolic Anthropology DouglasSymbolic Anthropology GeertzInterpretive Anthropology Levi-StraussStructuralism
Scientific method ___________________
Scientific method What is a hypothesis? ___________________.
Scientific method Hypotheses are subject to _______________ Must be _________ _________________ _________________
Scientific method What is a theory? ___________________ Can you think of an example of a theory?.