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Consumer Psychology: Retrospect and Prospect Hans Baumgartner Penn State University.

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Presentation on theme: "Consumer Psychology: Retrospect and Prospect Hans Baumgartner Penn State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Consumer Psychology: Retrospect and Prospect Hans Baumgartner Penn State University

2 Consumer PsychologyOverview  Retrospect □ Influential streams of research in consumer psychology (1956-2007) □ Types of influential articles  Prospect □ Consumer psychology in the third millennium □ Examples of recent research originating in the substantive, conceptual and methodological domains

3 Consumer Psychology Which research streams and articles have had an impact? (1) Total # of articles (2) Total # of citations (3) (2) ÷ (1) (4) # of articles cited ≥ 100 (5) # of citations of articles cited ≥ 100 (6) (4) ÷ (1) (7) (5) ÷ (2) JCR1,50358,2323912522,2858%38% JMR1,64657,9663511223,5127%41% JM1,37458,2794215032,37311%56% Overall4,523174,4773938778,1709%45%

4 Consumer Psychology Categorization of influential articles

5 Consumer Psychology The purchase process Marketing influences Psychological foundation Environmental influences Physical environ- mental influences Social environ- mental influences Cognition Affect Motivation & personality Product programs Price programs Marketing communication programs Distribution programs Types of purchase behavior Decision making and choice The consumption experience Post-purchase processes Categorization of research streams

6 Consumer Psychology Psychological foundation research: Cognition

7 Consumer Psychology Psychological foundation research: Affect

8 Consumer Psychology Psychological foundation research: Motivation & personality

9 Consumer Psychology Psychological foundation research: Motivation & personality (cont’d)

10 Consumer Psychology The purchase process

11 Consumer Psychology The purchase process (cont’d)

12 Consumer Psychology The purchase process (cont’d)

13 Consumer Psychology The purchase process (cont’d)

14 Consumer Psychology Environmental influences

15 Consumer Psychology Marketing influences: Product programs

16 Consumer Psychology Marketing influences: Product programs

17 Consumer Psychology Marketing influences: Price programs

18 Consumer Psychology Marketing influences: Advertising programs

19 Consumer Psychology Marketing influences: Advertising programs

20 Consumer Psychology Marketing influences: Personal selling and distribution programs

21 Consumer Psychology Miscellaneous research in JCR

22 Consumer Psychology Proportion of total citations accounted for by different areas and journals JCRJMRJMAll Psychological Foundations122217 Prepurchase processes153119 Postpurchase processes36412 Environmental influences3014 Product programs341723 Price programs1114 Advertising programs104317 Distribution programs0033 Total482131100

23 Consumer Psychology Types of influential articles  Methodological articles: □ New methodological techniques and procedures (e.g., Fornell and Larcker 1981; Thompson, Locander, and Pollio 1989; Bitner, Booms, and Tetreault 1990) □ Guidelines on how to use particular techniques and procedures (e.g., Green and Srinivasan 1978; Kassarjian 1977; Steenkamp and Baumgartner 1998; Calder, Phillips, and Tybout 1981) □ Syntheses of research evidence on a particular technique (e.g., Peterson 1994)

24 Consumer Psychology  Conceptual articles: □ New perspective/idea essays (e.g., Lavidge and Steiner 1961; Holbrook and Hirschman 1982; Zajonc and Markus 1982; Belk 1988; Friestad and Wright 1994) □ Minitheories of particular substantive phenomena (e.g., Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry 1985; Zeithaml 1988; Keller 1993; Fornell et al. 1996) □ Analytical frameworks (e.g., Shugan 1980; Hauser and Wernerfelt 1990) □ Propositional reviews of a research area (e.g., Gatignon and Robertson 1985; Alba and Hutchinson 1987; Bettman, Luce, and Payne 1998) □ Quantitative and qualitative syntheses of research evidence (e.g., Sheppard, Hartwick, and Warshaw 1988; Gardner 1985; Wilkie and Pessemier 1973) Types of influential articles (cont’d)

25 Consumer Psychology  Empirical articles: □ Studies that introduce a new concept, effect, or model Mitchell and Olson (1981); Winer (1986); Aaker and Keller (1990); Fournier (1998) Huber, Payne, and Puto (1982); Simonson (1989) Oliver (1980); MacKenzie, Lutz, and Belch (1986) □ Studies that test, extend, or challenge prior concepts, effects, or models Petty, Cacioppo, and Schumann (1983) Sujan (1985); Simonson and Tversky (1992) Cronin and Taylor (1992) □ Studies in popular research areas Bettman and Park (1980); Brucks (1985); Edell and Burke (1987); Celsi and Olson (1988) □ Scale development studies Zaichkowsky (1985); Richins and Dawson (1992) Types of influential articles (cont’d)

26 Consumer Psychology Consumer psychology in the third millennium  Fragmentation of the field □ Behavioral, managerial and quantitative □ Positivistic vs. interpretive □ BDT vs. information processing/social cognition  Many empirical findings – few integrative theories  Some personal thoughts on needed research □ What we don’t need more of □ What we need more of

27 Consumer Psychology What we don’t need more of  Phenomenon-, theory-, and method-of-the-month papers  Preoccupation with esoteric phenomena, theories, and methods  Counter-intuitive or theory-inconsistent findings that are not germane to consumer behavior  Studies that are more relevant to a foundational discipline than to consumer behavior and marketing

28 Consumer Psychology What we need more of  CB-relevant substantive phenomena as the starting point of research  Greater concern with ecologically valid manipulations, measures, and research settings  Contextualized theories of the middle range that integrate empirical findings □ ELM □ Extended ED model of consumer satisfaction □ GAP model of service quality

29 Consumer Psychology The purchase cube Based on Baumgartner (2002, forthcoming)

30 Consumer Psychology The purchase cube (cont’d) Based on Baumgartner (2002, forthcoming)

31 Consumer Psychology Recent research streams  Substantively-motivated research □ Price fairness □ The mere-measurement effect □ Other examples  Conceptually-motivated research □ Promotion and prevention focus □ Other examples  Methodologically-motivated research □ Consumer neuroscience □ Implicit association test

32 Consumer Psychology Price fairness as a prototype of recent substantively-motivated research  Price fairness as a “consumer’s assessment and associated emotions of whether the difference (or lack of difference) between a seller’s price and the price of a comparative other party is reasonable, acceptable, or justifiable” (Xia, Monroe, and Cox 2004; see also Bolton, Warlop, and Alba 2003)  Xia et al. (2004) list 21 studies relevant to price fairness (including research outside marketing and non-price research);  Consumer perception of price fairness is a topic uniquely suited to consumer research;  Rich literature base related to fairness in other areas;  Potential for theory building in the pricing area is huge;  Implications for pricing management are substantial;

33 Consumer Psychology  Asking questions about future behavior can change the behavior in question;  Morwitz, Johnson, and Schmittlein (1993) showed that asking respondents once whether they planned to buy an automobile (PC) in the next 6 months increased the incidence of purchase by 37 (18) percent;  Similar results for voting, volunteering, recycling, etc.  Theoretical explanations include increased accessibility of attitudes, avoidance of dissonance, etc.  Fitzsimons and Moore (2008) discuss the implications of this research for screening adolescents for risky behaviors such as drug and alcohol use or sexual behaviors; The mere-measurement effect as a prototype of recent substantively-motivated research

34 Consumer Psychology Other substantively-motivated research developments □ New marketing technologies (internet recommendation systems, on- line communities, design of web pages, virtual product experiences, customization, self-service technologies) □ Customer relationship management □ Financial consequences of satisfaction □ Cross-cultural consumer behavior □ Really new products □ Brand communities □ Identity signaling □ Sales promotion (loyalty and frequency programs) □ Product assortments □ Transformative consumer behavior and consumer welfare □ Corporate social responsibility and consumer boycotts

35 Consumer Psychology  Two types of regulatory focus (Higgins 2002): □ Promotion focus as self-regulation w/r/t the presence or absence of positive outcomes; concern with ideals and accomplishments; preferred means of goal attainment is eagerness; emotional reactions of cheerfulness and dejection; □ Prevention focus as self-regulation w/r/t the presence or absence of negative outcomes and a concern with oughts and security; preferred means of goal attainment is vigilance; emotional reactions of quiescence and agitation; Regulatory focus theory as a prototype of recent conceptually-motivated research

36 Consumer Psychology □ The unconscious consumer and automaticity (Bargh 2002; Dijksterhuis et al. 2005) □ Self-control and ego-depletion (Baumeister et al. 2008; Vohs and Faber 2007); □ Construal Level Theory (Trope, Liberman and Wakslak 2007) □ Terror management (Arndt, Solomon, Kasser, and Sheldon 2004) □ Metacognitive experiences (Schwarz 2004) □ Regret theory (Zeelenberg and Pieters 2007) Other conceptually-motivated research developments

37 Consumer Psychology  In the brand personality literature, humanlike traits are ascribed to brands;  Yoon et al. (2006) investigated, using fMRI, whether trait judgments about people and products (both self-relevant and nonself-relevant) are processed in similar regions of the brain;  the findings indicated that brand personality was processed differently from human personality; Consumer neuroscience as a prototype of recent methodologically-motivated research

38 Consumer Psychology  IAT as a measure of implicit consumer social cognition (Brunel, Tietje, and Greenwald, 2004);  Useful when people are unable (e.g., because of lack of conscious awareness) or unwilling (e.g., because of social desirability concerns) to reveal their opinions;  Disguised, unstructured procedure for assessing the strength of automatic associations between concepts (e.g., brand attitudes, consumer-brand relationships, attitudes toward ethnic spokespeople in ads); IAT as a prototype of recent methodologically-motivated research

39 Consumer Psychology JCP as the outlet for “extraordinary ideas” about consumer psychology  CW Park suggests the following under-researched areas: □ The role of learning in consumer behavior □ Aesthetic experience in consumption □ Perspectives on consumers’ cognitive flexibility beyond the cognitive miser view □ Hedonic consumption □ Consumers’ relationships with brands □ Culture and consumer psychology □ Neuroscience approaches □ Temporal interdependencies between purchase and consumption activities □ Joint decision making of users, deciders, disposers, and purchasers

40 Consumer Psychology Additional readings  Haugtvedt, Curtis P., Paul M Herr, and Frank R. Kardes, eds. (2008), Handbook of Consumer Psychology, New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum.  Loken Barbara (2006), “Consumer Psychology: Categorization, Inferences, Affect, and Persuasion,” Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 453-485.  Simonson, Itamar, Ziv Carmon, Ravi Dhar, Aimee Drolet, and Stephen M. Nowlis (2001), “Consumer Research: In Search of Identity,” Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 249-275.

41 Consumer Psychology The three domains of research (Brinberg and McGrath 1985; Lutz 1989) Conceptual domain Substantive domain Methodological domain

42 Consumer Psychology ELM as a prototype of conceptually- motivated research persuasive communication motivation to process ? ability to process ? nature of cognitive processing ? favorable thoughts predominate unfavorable thoughts predominate neither or neutral thoughts predominate central positive attitude change central negative attitude change yes no peripheral attitude shift peripheral cue present ? yes Based on Petty and Cacioppo (1986)

43 Consumer Psychology  Conceptually sophisticated theory of the middle range that integrates many disparate persuasion findings;  Useful mental model for thinking about persuasion problems in practice – v ariables can influence the extent and direction of attitude change by: □ serving as persuasive arguments (e.g., weak vs. strong arguments); □ serving as peripheral cues (e.g., source expertise or attractiveness, number of arguments); □ affecting the extent and direction of message elaboration (e.g., involvement as a determinant of motivation to process and distraction as a determinant of ability to process); ELM (cont’d)

44 Consumer Psychology perceived quality customer expectations perceived value customer satisfaction customer complaints customer loyalty American Customer Satisfaction Index (Fornell et al. 1996)

45 Consumer Psychology The GAPS model WOM Personal Needs Past Experience External Communication to Consumers Expected Service Perceived Service Service Delivery Translation of Mgmt. Perceptions into SQ specs Management Perceptions of Consumer Expectations GAP 3 GAP 2 GAP 5 GAP 1 GAP 4 CONSUMERCONSUMER MARKETERMARKETER

46 Consumer Psychology Purchase motives underlying the purchase cube

47 Consumer Psychology Price fairness as a prototype of recent substantively-motivated research  Bolton, Warlop, and Alba (2003) show that □ Consumers underestimate the effects of inflation and attribute rising prices to vendor price gouging; □ Consumers attribute price differences across competitors more to profit than cost; even when profits are equal, cost differences matter (e.g., quality differences are considered fair, use of a margin strategy as unfair); □ Consumers have poor mental models of a firm’s cost structure; less salient costs (with the exception of COGS) are often ignored and perceptions of profit margins are too high; certain costs (e.g., promotional costs) are deemed unfair;

48 Consumer Psychology Schematic representation of the IAT Man United or PleasantChelsea or Unpleasant √ Love Χ Χ√ Χ Vomit √ √Χ Man United or UnpleasantChelsea or Pleasant Χ Freedom √ Χ√ √ Sickness Χ √Χ


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