Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1.2- Western Asia & Egypt"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 1.2- Western Asia & Egypt City-States of Ancient MesopotamiaEmpires of Ancient MesopotamiaThe Code of HammurabiThe Creativity of the SumeriansThe Course of Egyptian HistorySociety in Ancient EgyptWriting, Art, & ScienceNew Centers of Civilization: The IsraelitesThe Rise of the New Empires
2The City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia The valley between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers is part of the Fertile Crescent, an arc of land extending from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian GulfThrough a large-scale system of water control, crops could be grown on a regular basis, enabling large numbers of people to live together in cities.
4The City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia The first city-states in Mesopotamia were created by the SumeriansThese states controlled the surrounding countryside politically and economicallyThe most prominent building in a Sumerian city was the templeThe people devoted much of their wealth tobuilding templesproviding elaborate houses for the priests and priestessesPower passed from religious leaders to kingsKings led armies and organized the water control projects necessary to sustain farming
5Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia City-states fought for control of land and waterThe flat land of Mesopotamia encouraged invasion by outside groupsSargon, leader of the Akkadians, overran the Sumerian city-states in 2340 B.C. and set up the first empire in historyAn empire is a large political unit that controls many peoples and territoriesIn 1792 B.C., Hammurabi of Babylon established a new empire over much of Akkad and Sumeria
6The Code of HammurabiHammurabi is known for his law code, a collection of 282 lawsPenalties were severeThey varied according to social statusbased on the principle of retaliation.The law code contained consumer protection laws to encourage the proper performance of workThe largest group of laws dealt with marriage and the familyParents arranged marriages, and the two parties signed a marriage contractThe law code expressed the patriarchal nature of Mesopotamian societyWomen had fewer privileges and rights than menThe code also enforced the obedience of children to parents
7The Creativity of the Sumerians The Sumerians created a system of writing called cuneiform (wedge-shaped)They used a reed stylus to make wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets, which were then baked in the sunWriting was used to keep records and to pass on knowledgeIt allowed people to communicate in new waysThe Epic of Gilgamesh is an important Mesopotamian epic poem
8The Creativity of the Sumerians The Sumerians invented important itemsthe wagon wheelthe potter’s wheelthe sundialthe archbronzeThe Sumerians developed a number system based on 60.Geometry was used to measure fields, and the Sumerians charted the constellations
9The Course of Egyptian History The Nile is the longest river in the worldThe area where the Nile splits in two, before it empties into the Mediterranean, is called the Nile delta, also called Lower EgyptThe land upstream is Upper EgyptEgyptian history is divided into three major periods of stability, peace, and cultural activity:the Old Kingdomthe Middle Kingdomthe New KingdomBetween the periods of stability were ages of political chaos and invasion
11The Course of Egyptian History Egyptian history began around 3100 B.C. when King Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt into a single kingdomHe created the first dynasty in EgyptA dynasty is a family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the familyDuring the prosperous Old Kingdom, 2700–2200 B.C., Egyptian rulers became known as pharaohs, which means “great house” or “palace.”
12The Course of Egyptian History The pyramids were built during the Old KingdomPyramids were tombs for the mummified bodies of the pharaohsPriests performed the process of mummification, which could last 70 daysThe largest pyramid is the Great Pyramid of King Khufu at GizaBuilt around 2540 B.C.it stands next to a huge statue with the body of a lion and the head of a manKnown as the Great Sphinx, it is believed to bear the likeness of Khufu’s son Khafre
13The Course of Egyptian History The Middle Kingdom, 2050–1652 B.C., was later portrayed by Egyptians as a golden age of stabilitypharaohs displayed a new concern for the peoplepharaohs undertook public works such as draining swampland to provide more farming landThe Middle Kingdom came to an end when the Hyksos invaded from western AsiaThe Hyksos had horse-drawn chariots and superior bronze weapons
14The Course of Egyptian History The conquered Egyptians eventually drove out the Hyksos and established the New Kingdom from 1567–1085 B.C.Egypt became a militaristic and powerful stateMassive wealth was used to enhance the prestige and power of the pharaohsMany new temples were constructed.Invasions by a group known as the “Sea Peoples” eventually caused the loss of the Egyptian Empire.For the next thousand years, Libyans, Nubians, Persians, and Macedonians dominated Egypt.
15Society in Ancient Egypt Egyptian society was organized like a pyramidThe pharaoh was at the topHe was surrounded by a ruling class of nobles and priestsThey ran the government and managed their own estatesBelow the upper class were merchants, artisans, scribes, and tax collectorsArtisans created beautiful goods that merchants soldThe largest number of people in Egypt were peasants who worked the land, paid taxes, and provided military service and labor
16Writing, Art, and Science Writing emerged in Egypt around 3000 B.CEgyptians used a system called hieroglyphics.It used pictures and abstract forms and was written on temple walls and tombsA simplified version, written on papyrus, is called hieratic scriptused for business transactions and the general needs of everyday life
17Writing, Art, and Science Pyramids, temples, and other monuments exemplify the architectural and artistic achievements of the EgyptiansArtists followed a distinctive stylethe human body was often shown as a combination of profile, semi-profile, and frontal view in order to accurately represent each partTo erect their monumental building projects and accurately survey their flooded land, Egyptians made important advances in geometryThey were able to calculate area and volume
19New Centers of Civilization: The Israelites As Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations declined, smaller states emergedThe Israelites were a Semitic people who lived in Palestineemerged as a distinct group between 1200–1000 B.C. who established a united kingdom known as Israel
20New Centers of Civilization: The Israelites King Solomon, who ruled from about 970 to 930 B.C., expanded the government, army, and trade.He built a temple in JerusalemUnder Solomon, ancient Israel was at the height of its power.
21New Centers of Civilization: The Israelites After Solomon’s death, Israel divided into two kingdomsThe northern kingdom was Israelthe southern kingdom was JudahThis kingdom gave its name to the religion of the Israelites, JudaismThe Jews were monotheisticThey worshipped one god, Yahweh
22New Centers of Civilization: The Israelites The covenant, law, and prophets were three aspects of Jewish religionThe covenant, or contract, was the agreement between God and his people:Yahweh promised to guide them if they obeyed the law of God stated in the Ten CommandmentsProphets were sent by God to serve as his voice to the peopleexpressed concern for all humanity and the hope that all people would someday follow the God of Israel, and peace would be establishedProphets were concerned for social justiceThey called on the Jews to act justly, share with neighbors, care for the poor and unfortunate, and act with compassion
24The Rise of New EmpiresThe independent state of Israel was conquered by larger empiresThrough the use of iron weapons and military conquest, the Assyrians established an empire by 700 B.C.used terror as an instrument of warfareregularly destroyed the land in which they were fightingInternal strife and resentment of Assyrian rule brought about the collapse of the empire in 612 B.C.
25The Rise of New EmpiresThe Persians were a nomadic, Indo-European people living in what today is southwestern IranOne family unified the various groupsOne member, Cyrus, created a powerful Persian state from Asia Minor to western India.Cyrus ruled from 559 to 530 B.C.He captured Babylon, treating his subjects with wisdom and restraint, and he allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem
26The Rise of New EmpiresDarius, who ruled from 521 to 486 B.C., extended the empire into India and Europe, creating the largest empire the world had yet seenEfficient communication was necessary to sustain the Persian Empire.The Royal Road, stretching from Lydia to Susa, linked the empireThe Persians set up way stations providing rest, shelter, and fresh horses for the king’s messengers.After Darius, the Persian kings became more isolated in their luxurious courts.Struggles over power weakened the empire until it was conquered by Alexander the Great during the 330s B.C.
28Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Washington MonumentGreat Pyramid of King Khufu415 feet or 127 metersClick the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.