Satan as Accuser Other evil, spiritual beings Worldview Shared by Jesus and His Contemporaries Satan and Evil Spirits in the Old Testament
Version One: The Watchers and their Offspring Gen 6:1 Now it came about, when men began to multiply on the face of the land, and daughters were born to them, 2 that the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were beautiful; and they took wives for themselves, whomever they chose. 3 Then the Lord said, “My Spirit shall not strive with man forever, because he also is flesh; nevertheless his days shall be one hundred and twenty years.” 4 The Nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God came in to the daughters of men, and they bore children to them. Those were the mighty men who were of old, men of renown. 5 Then the Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great on the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. 6 The Lord was sorry that he had made man on the earth, and he was grieved in His heart. Worldview Shared by Jesus and His Contemporaries Disobedient Spiritual Beings in Second-Temple Judaism What did the “sons of God” do? Who are the Nephilim?
Version One: The Watchers and their Offspring 1 Enoch 7: And all the others together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go in unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charms and enchantments, and the cutting of roots, and made them acquainted with plants. And they became pregnant, and they bare great giants, whose height was three thousand ells [ell = half of meter]: Who consumed all the acquisitions of men. And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against them and devoured mankind. And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and fish, and to devour one another's flesh, and drink the blood. Then the earth laid accusation against the lawless ones. Worldview Shared by Jesus and His Contemporaries Disobedient Spiritual Beings in Second-Temple Judaism How is Gen 6:1-6 interpreted by some Jews in the second-Temple period?
1 Enoch 8:1 And Azaz’el taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals of the earth and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all 2 coloring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they 3 were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Amasras taught enchantments, and the cutting of roots, Armaros the resolving of enchantments, Baraqiyal (taught) astrology, Kokarer’el the knowledge of the signs, Tam’el the seeing of the stars, Asder’el taught the course of the moon as well as the deception of man. And as men perished, they cried, and their cry went up to heaven. Version One: The Watchers and their Offspring Worldview Shared by Jesus and His Contemporaries Disobedient Spiritual Beings in Second-Temple Judaism How is the moral corruption of the antediluvian world explained? Which types of things are considered evil?
1 Enoch 15:8 And now, the giants, who are produced from the spirits and flesh, shall be called evil spirits upon 9 the earth, and on the earth shall be their dwelling. Evil spirits have proceeded from their bodies; because they are born from men and from the holy Watchers is their beginning and primal origin; 10 they shall be evil spirits on earth, and evil spirits shall they be called. [As for the spirits of heaven, in heaven shall be their dwelling, but as for the spirits of the earth which were born upon the earth, on the earth shall be their dwelling.] And the spirits of the giants afflict, oppress, destroy, attack, do battle, and work destruction on the earth, and cause trouble: they take no food, but nevertheless 12 hunger and thirst, and cause offences. And these spirits shall rise up against the children of men and against the women, because they have proceeded from them. Version One: The Watchers and their Offspring Worldview Shared by Jesus and His Contemporaries Disobedient Spiritual Beings in Second-Temple Judaism What is the explanation of the origin of evil spirits?
Version One: The Watchers and their Offspring 2 Enoch 18.4-6 Book of Jubilees 4.22; 8.3-4; 5.1-11. Damascus Document (CD) 2.14-3.12a 4Q180-181 (The Ages of Creation) Testament of Reuben 5:6 Testament of Naphtali 3.5 2 Baruch 56:12-13 Worldview Shared by Jesus and His Contemporaries Disobedient Spiritual Beings in Second-Temple Judaism
Book of Jubilees “And they began making graven images and polluted likenesses. And cruel spirits assisted them and led them astray so that they might commit sin and pollution. And the prince Mastema, acted forcefully to do all this. And he sent other spirits to those who were set under his hand to practice all error and sin and all transgression, to destroy, to cause to perish and to pour out blood upon the earth.” (Jub. 11.4-5) Version Two: Evil Spirits under the Authority of a Ruling Spirit Worldview Shared by Jesus and His Contemporaries Disobedient Spiritual Beings in Second-Temple Judaism How does prince Mastema and spirits under his control interact with human beings?
Qumran Sectarian Writings Belial and “the spirits of his lot” (passim) “The army of Belial” / “The troops of Belial" (1QM 1.1, 13) “You made Belial to corrupt, a hostile angel" (1QM 13.10-11). “Dominion of Belial” (1QS 1.18; 2.19; 1QM 14.9; 4QCat-a col. 3. 8 / “Dominion of wickedness” (1QM 17.5-6; 4Q510 frg. 1. 6; 4Q511 frg. 10.5) “And all their sins, their iniquities, their guilt and their acts of rebellion are because of his dominion.” (1QS 3.22) Version Two: Evil Spirits under the Authority of a Ruling Spirit Worldview Shared by Jesus and His Contemporaries Disobedient Spiritual Beings in Second-Temple Judaism In the Qumran sectarian texts, who is Belial and what does he do?
And jubilees will pass until Israel is purified from all the sin of fornication, and defilement, and uncleanness, and sin and error. And they will dwell in confidence in all the land. And then it will not have any Satan or any evil (one). And the land will be purified from that time and forever. (Jub. 50:5) Eschatological Removal of Satan and Evil Spirits Worldview Shared by Jesus and His Contemporaries Disobedient Spiritual Beings in Second-Temple Judaism What does the author foresee as the ultimate fate of Satan and other evil spirits?
Tobit 6:2b The travelers walked till nightfall, and made camp beside the Tigris River. 3 Now when the boy went down to wash his feet in the river, a large fish suddenly leaped out of the water and tried to swallow his foot. He shouted in alarm. 4 But the angel said to him, "Take hold of the fish and don't let it get away!" The boy seized the fish and hauled it up on the shore. 5 The angel then told him: "Cut the fish open and take out its gall, heart, and liver, and keep them with you; but throw away the entrails. Its gall, heart, and liver make useful medicines." 6 After the lad had cut the fish open, he put aside the gall, heart, and liver. Then he broiled and ate part of the fish; the rest he salted and kept for the journey. 7 Afterward they traveled on together till they were near Media. The boy asked the angel this question: "Brother Azariah, what medicinal value is there in the fish's heart, liver, and gall?" 8 He answered: "As regards the fish's heart and liver, if you burn them so that the smoke surrounds a man or a woman who is afflicted by a demon or evil spirit, the affliction will leave him completely, and no demons will ever return to him again. 9 And as for the gall, if you rub it on the eyes of a man who has cataracts, blowing into his eyes right on the cataracts, his sight will be restored." Jewish Accounts of Exorcisms Outside of New Testament Tobit
6:14 Tobias objected, however: "Brother Azarias, I have heard that this woman has already been married seven times, and that her husbands died in their bridal chambers. On the very night they approached her, they dropped dead. And I have heard it said that it was a demon who killed them. 15 So now I too am afraid of this demon. Because he loves her, he does not harm her; but he does slay any man who wishes to come close to her. I am my father's only child. If I should die, I would bring my father and mother down to their grave in sorrow over me. And they have no other son to bury them!" 16 Raphael said to him: "Do you not remember your father's orders? He commanded you to marry a woman from your own family. So now listen to me, brother; do not give another thought to this demon, but marry Sarah. I know that tonight you shall have her for your wife! 17 When you go into the bridal chamber, take the fish's liver and heart, and place them on the embers for the incense. 18 As soon as the demon smells the odor they give off, he will flee and never again show himself near her. Jewish Accounts of Exorcisms Outside of New Testament Tobit
8:2 At this point Tobias, mindful of Raphael's instructions, took the fish's liver and heart from the bag which he had with him, and placed them on the embers for the incense. 3 The demon, repelled by the odor of the fish, fled into Upper Egypt; Raphael pursued him there and bound him hand and foot. Then Raphael returned immediately. Jewish Accounts of Exorcisms Outside of New Testament Tobit What are the features of exorcism as portrayed in the Book of Tobit?
Ant. 8.45 God also enabled him [Solomon] to learn that skill which expels demons, which is a science useful and sanative to men. He composed such incantations also by which distempers are alleviated. And he left behind him the manner of using exorcisms, by which they drive away demons, so that they never return; and this method of cure is of great force unto this day." Jewish Accounts of Exorcisms Outside of New Testament Josephus' Writings How is Solomon interpreted in second-Temple Judaism?
Ant. 8.46-48: For I have seen a certain man of my own country, whose name was Eleazar, releasing people that were demoniacal in the presence of Vespasian, and his sons, and his captains, and the whole multitude of his soldiers. The manner of the cure was this: He put a ring that had a root of one of those sorts mentioned by Solomon to the nostrils of the demoniac, after which he drew out the demon through his nostrils; and when the man fell down immediately, he abjured him to return into him no more, making still mention of Solomon, and reciting the incantations which he composed. Jewish Accounts of Exorcisms Outside of New Testament Josephus' Writings
Ant. 8.46-48 (cont’d): And when Eleazar would persuade and demonstrate to the spectators that he had such a power, he set a little way off a cup or basin full of water, and commanded the demon, as he went out of the man, to overturn it, and thereby to let the spectators know that he had left the man; and when this was done, the skill and wisdom of Solomon was shown very manifestly: for which reason it is, that all men may know the vastness of Solomon's abilities, and how he was beloved of God, and that the extraordinary virtues of every kind with which this king was endowed may not be unknown to any people under the sun for this reason, I say, it is that we have proceeded to speak so largely of these matters. Jewish Accounts of Exorcisms Outside of New Testament Josephus' Writings What does Josephus claim to have witnessed? How was Eleazar’s exorcism done? How does Josephus interpret Solomon?
That night God Most High sent him a pestilential spirit to afflict him and all the men of his household, an evil spirit, that kept afflicting him and the men of his household. He was not able to approach her, nor did he have sexual intercourse with her, though he was with her for two years…. But now pray for me and for my household that this evil spirit may be commanded (to depart) from us and the spirit departed. Jewish Accounts of Exorcisms Outside of New Testament Genesis Apocryphon (1QapGen) 20 How is the Genesis account re-interpreted in Genesis Apocryphon? Gen 12:17 But the Lord struck Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai, Abram’s wife. 18 Then Pharaoh called Abram and said, “What is this you have done to me? Why did you not tell me that she was your wife? 19 Why did you say, ‘She is my sister,’ so that I took her for my wife? Now then, here is your wife, take her and go.” 20 Pharaoh commanded his men concerning him; and they escorted him away, with his wife and all that belonged to him.
And I, a Sage, declare the splendor of his [God’s] radiance in order to frighten and terr[ify] all the spirits of the ravaging angels and the bastard spirits, demons, Lillith, owls and [jackals...] and those who strike unexpectedly to lead astray the spirit of knowledge, to make their hearts forlorn" "And as for me I spread the fear of God in the ages of my generations to exalt the name [... and to terrify] with his power al[l] spirits of the bastards, to subjugate them by his fear." “The praises of justice and [... ]... And through my mouth he startles [all the spirits] of the bastards, to subjugate [all] impure [sin]ners." Jewish Accounts of Exorcisms Outside of New Testament Songs of the Sage (4Q510-11) How are demons said to react to hearing praises being given to God? What kind of demons are identified?
[An incan]tation in the name of YHW[H. Invoke at a]ny time.... [When] he comes upon you in the nig[ht,] you shall [s]ay to him: Who are you [oh offspring of] man and the seed of the ho[ly] ones? Your face is the face of [delus]ion, and your horns are horns of illu[si]on. You are darkness and not light [injus]tice and not justice. [... ] the chief of the army. YHWH [will bring] you [down] [to the] deepest [Sheo]l, [he will shut] the two bronze [ga]tes through [which n]o light [penetrates] etc." Jewish Accounts of Exorcisms Outside of New Testament Apocryphal Psalms (III) (11Q11) What is the technique outlined in this psalm for controlling demons?
And we explained to Noah all the medicines of their diseases, together with their seductions, how he might heal them with herbs of the earth. And Noah wrote down all things in a book as we instructed him concerning every kind of medicine. Thus the evil spirits were precluded from (hurting) the sons of Noah. Jewish Accounts of Exorcisms Outside of New Testament Book of Jubilees (10) According to Jubilees what does God give to Noah through angels in order to control evil spirits?
“But if any of you exorcize it in [the name of] the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, it will perhaps be subject to you. Now assuredly your exorcists, I have said, make use of proper technique when they exorcize, even as the gentiles do, and employ fumigations and incantations.” Jewish Accounts of Exorcisms Outside of New Testament Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho What does Justin describe as the typical method used by Jewish exorcists?
Jesus' Exorcisms Mark 1:34: And Jesus healed many who had various diseases. He also drove out many demons, but he would not let the demons speak because they knew who he was. Mark 6:7: Calling the Twelve to him, he sent them out two by two and gave them authority over evil spirits. Mark 3:10 For he had healed many, so that those with diseases were pushing forward to touch him. 11 Whenever the evil spirits saw him, they fell down before him and cried out, "You are the Son of God." General References to Jesus as Exorcist in the Synoptic Gospels Mark 1:33b: He also drove out many demons, but he would not let the demons speak because they knew who he was. How would you describe Jesus’ exorcist activity? What does Jesus prevent demons from doing?
Jesus' Exorcisms Mark 1:21-28 21 They went to Capernaum, and when the Sabbath came, Jesus went into the synagogue and began to teach. 22 The people were amazed at his teaching, because he taught them as one who had authority, not as the teachers of the law. 23 Just then a man in their synagogue who was possessed by an evil spirit cried out, 24 "What do you want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are—the Holy One of God!" 25 "Be quiet," said Jesus sternly. "Come out of him." 26 The evil spirit shook the man violently and came out of him with a shriek. 27 The people were all so amazed that they asked each other, "What is this? A new teaching—and with authority. He even gives orders to evil spirits and they obey him." 28 News about him spread quickly over the whole region of Galilee. Specific Exorcisms in the Synoptic Gospels
Jesus' Exorcisms Mark 9:17 A man in the crowd answered, "Teacher, I brought you my son, who is possessed by a spirit that has robbed him of speech. 18 Whenever it seizes him, it throws him to the ground. He foams at the mouth, gnashes his teeth and becomes rigid. I asked your disciples to drive out the spirit, but they could not." 19 "O unbelieving generation," Jesus replied, "how long shall I stay with you? How long shall I put up with you? Bring the boy to me." 20 So they brought him. When the spirit saw Jesus, it immediately threw the boy into a convulsion. He fell to the ground and rolled around, foaming at the mouth. 21 Jesus asked the boy's father, "How long has he been like this?" "From childhood," he answered. 22 "It has often thrown him into fire or water to kill him. But if you can do anything, take pity on us and help us." 23 "`If you can'?" said Jesus. "Everything is possible for him who believes." 24 Immediately the boy's father exclaimed, "I do believe; help me overcome my unbelief!" 25 When Jesus saw that a crowd was running to the scene, he rebuked the evil spirit. "You deaf and mute spirit," he said, "I command you, come out of him and never enter him again." 26 The spirit shrieked, convulsed him violently and came out. The boy looked so much like a corpse that many said, "He's dead." 27 But Jesus took him by the hand and lifted him to his feet, and he stood up. 28 After Jesus had gone indoors, his disciples asked him privately, "Why couldn't we drive it out?" 29 He replied, "This kind can come out only by prayer." Specific Exorcisms in the Synoptic Gospels
Jesus' Exorcisms You deaf and mute spirit... I command you, come out of him and never enter him again. (Mark 9:25) Teacher, we saw someone casting out demons in your name, and we tried to prevent him because he was not following us. (Mark 9:38-41) He summoned the twelve and began to send them out in pairs, and gave them authority over the unclean spirits" (Mark 3:15; 6:7). When they returned from being sent out to announce the Kingdom of God, they marvelled that demons submitted to them because of Jesus: "Lord, even the demons submit to us in your name." (Luke 10:17) He even gives orders to evil spirits and they obey him (Mark 1:27; Luke 4:36) / “The crowds were amazed, and were saying, 'Nothing like this has ever been seen in Israel‘” (Matt 9:33). Jesus' Uniqueness as an Exorcist What constitutes Jesus’ uniqueness as an exorcist?
Jesus' Exorcisms Jesus never uses secondary means in his exorcisms, such as fumigations, rings, roots or herbs. Nor does Jesus use incantations, liturgical prayers or specially-composed psalms of praise as part of his exorcist practice. Jesus' Uniqueness as an Exorcist
Jesus' Exorcisms Whenever the unclean spirits saw Him, they would fall down before Him and shout, "You are the son of God." (Mark 3:11) Seeing Jesus from a distance, he ran up and bowed down before him; and shouting with a loud voice, he said, "What business do we have with each other, Jesus, son of the Most High God? I implore you by God, do not torment me." (Mark 5:7) Jesus' Uniqueness as an Exorcist How do demons respond to Jesus? What does this imply?
The Beelzebul Controversy Matt 12:24 But when the Pharisees heard this, they said, "This man casts out demons only by Beelzebul the ruler of the demons." 25 And knowing their thoughts Jesus said to them, "Any kingdom divided against itself is laid waste; and any city or household divided against itself will not stand. 26 If Satan casts out Satan, he is divided against himself; how then will his kingdom stand? 27 If I by Beelzebul cast out demons, by whom do your sons cast them out? For this reason they will be your judges. 28 But if I cast out demons by the Spirit of God, then the Kingdom of God has come upon you. What is the interpretation that Jesus gives to his exorcisms? Jesus' Exorcisms Jesus' Interpretation of his Exorcisms
The Stronger Man Mark 3:27 But no one can enter the strong man's house and plunder his property unless he first binds the strong man, and then he will plunder his house. Luke 11:21 When a strong man, fully armed, guards his own house, his possessions are undisturbed. 22 But when someone stronger than he attacks him and overpowers him, he takes away from him all his armor on which he had relied and distributes his plunder. What point do both the versions of this saying make concerning the significance of Jesus' exorcisms? Jesus' Exorcisms Jesus' Interpretation of his Exorcisms
“I Saw Satan Fall like Lightning” Luke 10:17 The seventy-two returned with joy and said, "Lord, even the demons submit to us in your name." 18 He replied, "I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven. 19 I have given you authority to trample on snakes and scorpions and to overcome all the power of the enemy; nothing will harm you. 20 However, do not rejoice that the spirits submit to you, but rejoice that your names are written in heaven." What does Jesus say about Satan in this passage? Jesus' Exorcisms Jesus' Interpretation of his Exorcisms
Bread for the Children Mark 7:24-30 24 Jesus left that place and went to the vicinity of Tyre. He entered a house and did not want anyone to know it; yet he could not keep his presence secret. 25 In fact, as soon as she heard about him, a woman whose little daughter was possessed by an evil spirit came and fell at his feet. 26 The woman was a Greek, born in Syrian Phoenicia. She begged Jesus to drive the demon out of her daughter. 27 "First let the children eat all they want," he told her, "for it is not right to take the children's bread and toss it to their dogs." 28 "Yes, Lord," she replied, "but even the dogs under the table eat the children's crumbs." 29 Then he told her, "For such a reply, you may go; the demon has left your daughter." 30 She went home and found her child lying on the bed, and the demon gone. What is the metaphor that Jesus uses to describe his exorcist ministry? For whom is the benefit of exorcism intended? Jesus' Exorcisms Jesus' Interpretation of his Exorcisms
Matt 12:31-32 31 Therefore I say to you, any sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven human beings, but blasphemy against the Spirit shall not be forgiven. 32 Whoever speaks a word against the son of man, it shall be forgiven him; but whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him, either in this age or in the age to come. Blaspheming against the Holy Spirit