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People and Ideas on the Move

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1 People and Ideas on the Move
World History Chapter 3 People and Ideas on the Move

2 Let’s review our Standards
SSWH1: The student will analyze the origins, structures, and interactions of complex societies in the ancient Eastern Mediterranean from3500 BCE to 500 BCE. SSWH2: The student will identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from 1100 BCE to 500 CE.

3 Essential Questions What was the impact of religion on the development of early societies? In what ways did the interaction of early civilizations contribute to the greater complexity of their societies? What was the role of early governments?

4 What will we learn? We will learn about: Monotheism
Trading networks in Eastern Mediterranean Importance of writing/Phoenician Alphabet Impact of Hinduism and Buddhism on India Diffusion of Buddhism Development of Chinese civilization Confucianism

5 Study the map on page 59 Why did so many of the ancient trade routes cross the seas? Sea travel was easier and faster than overland travel. What routes of communication existed between the Bay of Bengal near India and Phoenicia and Jerusalem in Southwest Asia? There were trade routes both by land and sea.

6 Study the map on page 59 How was the Arabian Peninsula well situated to take part in world trade? It was situated between Europe, Asia, and Africa and functioned as a crossroads.

7 Timeline Discussion Use the timeline at the bottom of pages to answer the following questions: 1. How many years were there between the Hittites migrations into Anatolia and the Aryans invasion of India? 2. What was happening in the Western Hemisphere around the time the Phoenicians began to dominate Mediterranean trade?

8 Timeline Discussion 3. What did the founding of Carthage demonstrate about the Phoenicians? 4. What two important events happened in the sixth century B.C.?

9 Timeline Discussion Answers
# years #2. The Olmec civilization was emerging in what is now Mexico. #3. They were important traders for close to 300 years. #4. Babylonians captured Jerusalem; Zapotecs built Monte Alban in Mexico.

10 Chapter Preview Section One: The Indo Europeans
Spread of Indo-Europeans & their language Hittite Empire & effects of technology Aryan invasion of India & new culture that resulted Section Two: Hinduism & Buddhism develop Origins, beliefs, and development of Hinduism. Origins, beliefs, and development of Buddhism

11 Chapter Preview Section Three: Seafaring Traders
Minoan civilization Contributions of the Phoenicians Extent and impact of ancient world trade Section Four: The origins of Judaism History & beliefs of ancient Hebrews Historical & cultural importance of the Exodus Israel under Saul, David and Solomon Israel’s destruction & Hebrews exile in Babylon

12 Who are the Indo-Europeans?
A group of nomadic people who came from the steppes or dry grasslands that stretched north of the Caucasus Mountains. These people are primarily pastoral who herded cattle, sheep, and goats. They also tamed horses and rode into battles on light, two-wheeled chariots. They lived in tribes that spoke forms of a language that we call Indo-European.

13 Why do so many languages originate from the Indo-Europeans?
So many Indo-Europeans were ancestors of many of the modern languages of Europe, Southwest Asia, and South Asia. English, Spanish, Persian and Hindi all trace their origins back to different forms of the original Indo-European language. Look at chart on page 61.

14 Indo-European Languages
English Spanish Persian Hindi Sanskrit Greek

15 Who are the Hittites? A group of Indo-European speakers who by about 2000 BC occupied Anatolia, also called Asia Minor. Anatolia is a large peninsula in modern day Turkey that juts out into the Black and Mediterranean Seas.

16 How did environmental features in Anatolia help the Hittites advance technologically?
The Hittites excelled in the technology of war. The Hittites were the first in Southwest Asia to work with iron and harden it into weapons. Iron ore and wood were easily accessible to them in the mountains of Anatolia.

17 Who are the Aryans? An Indo-European people whose homeland was probably somewhere between the Caspian and Aral Seas. These people crossed over the northwest mountain passes into the Indus River Valley of India.

18 What are vedas? The Aryans left almost no archaeological record, however their sacred literature, the Vedas, left a picture of Aryan life. The Vedas are four collections of prayers, magical spells, and instructions for performing rituals. The most important is the Rig Veda, a song book of 1028 hymns to Aryan gods.

19 Brahmins or priests Warriors Peasants or traders Aryan Caste System
The Aryans were divided into three social classes or castes: Brahmins or priests Warriors Peasants or traders

20 What effects would a rigid caste system have on an Aryan society?
Would NOT allow intermarriage between classes. Would make it IMPOSSIBLE to change jobs. Would make it IMPOSSIBLE to change social positions.

21 Great Epic of India Mahabbharata reflects the struggles that took place in India as the Aryans moved south. Elements in the epic describe the mixing of cultures between the Aryans and non-Aryans.

22 The gods and forms of their religions tended to blend together.
What happened when Aryans and non-Aryans began to intermingle religious culture? The gods and forms of their religions tended to blend together. This blending resulted in the worship of thousands of gods. Different ways of living and different beliefs made life more complex for both groups.

23 What is Hinduism? What are the beliefs of those who practice this religion?
Hinduism is a collection of religious beliefs that developed slowly over a long period of time. Some beliefs of those who practice Hinduism are: They share a common worldview. They see religion as a way of liberating the soul from the illusions, disappointments, and mistakes of everyday existence.

24 What are the beliefs of those who practice this religion?
Those who practice this religion believe in reincarnation (rebirth) whereby an individuals soul or spirit is born again until (moksha) a state of perfect understanding of all things is achieved. They also believe in karma a soul’s good or bad deeds. Karma influence’s specific life circumstances, such as castes people are born in, one’s health or wealth.

25 What are the beliefs of those who practice this religion?
Hindus today are free to choose the deity they worship or to choose none at all. Hindu ideas about karma and reincarnation strengthened the caste system. The beliefs of Hinduism and its caste structure dominated every aspect of a person’s life.

26 How might the lack of a single founder result in Hinduism changing more over time than other religions? No single set of original beliefs determines Hinduism’s development so it can change more freely than religions with a founder.

27 What is Jainism? The founder of this religion Mahavira believed that everything in the universe has a soul and so should not be harmed.

28 Who is Siddhartha Gautama?
The founder of Buddhism. The Buddhist legend states that as a baby, he exhibited the marks of a great man. The prophecy stated that if the child stayed at home he was destined to become a world ruler. However, if the child left home he would become a universal spiritual leader.

29 Who is Siddhartha Gautama?

30 What is enlightenment? Wisdom that Siddhartha found after wandering around in the wilderness for six years. Siddhartha did three things to find this enlightenment: He debated with other religious seekers. He fasted-ate only 6 grains of rice per day. He meditated for 49 days under a large fig tree.

31 How did Siddhartha Gautama gain the name “Buddha” ?
After this meditation, he achieved an understanding of the cause of suffering in this world. From then on he was referred to as “the enlightened one” or Buddha.

32 What are the Four Noble Truths?
These four principles became the main ideas that Buddha came to understand in his enlightenment.

33 The Four Noble Truths Life is filled with suffering and sorrow.
The cause of all suffering is people’s selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of this world. The way to end all suffering is to end all desires. The way to overcome such desires and attain enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold Path, which is called the Middle Way between desires and self denial.

34 What is the Eightfold Path?
A guide to behavior, similar to a staircase. For Buddha, those who were seeking enlightenment had to master one step at a time. This mastery would occur over many lifetimes. Eightfold Path is referred to as the Middle Way.

35 The Middle Way Right Views Right Resolve Right Speech Right Conduct
Right Livelihood Right Effort Right Mindfulness Right Concentration

36 Hinduism vs. Buddhism Similarities Differences
Search for a perfect understanding. Search for an end to suffering. Believe in reincarnation. Accepted a repetitive view of history.(The world is created and destroyed over and over. Buddhism rejected a caste system. Hinduism accepted castes. Buddha rejected the many gods of Hinduism. Hinduism was founded by multiple founders. Buddha was the soul founder of Buddhism.

37 Nirvana By following the Eightfold Path, anyone could achieve Nirvana.
Nirvana is Buddha’s word for release from selfishness and pain.

38 How does Buddhism affect social caste systems?
Because Buddha rejected social caste systems, many of his first followers were laborers and craftspeople. The Buddha reluctantly accepted women into religious orders. Monks and nuns took solemn vows (promises) to live a life of poverty, to be non-violent, and not to marry. They traveled throughout India spreading Buddha’s teachings only accepting charity offerings.

39 Buddhism and India… Why? How did Buddhism spread?
After Buddha’s death, missionaries were able to spread his faith over large parts of Asia. Although the religion spread, it did not take a strong foothold in India (the country it originated in). Why?

40 Buddhism and India Theories are:
Hinduism simply absorbed Buddhism in India. The two religions always identified with each other and over a span of years the Buddha became known as one of the 10 incarnations of a Hindu god.

41 How might the people of the Minoan civilization be described?
They were a powerful seafaring people who dominated trade in the eastern Mediterranean from about 2000 to 1400 B.C. They lived on the island of Crete on the southern edge of the Aegean Sea. They were also artistic people who had an advanced and thriving culture. No protective walls were discovered by archaeologists which suggests they were peaceful people.

42 Knossos and King Minos Knossos was the capital city of the Minoan civilization that was discovered by archaeologists in the late 19th and 20th centuries. King Minos was a legendary king who owned a half-human, half-bull monster, called the Minotaur.

43 Knossos and King Minos

44 Phonecians About 1100 B.C. after the decline of Crete, they were most powerful traders along the Mediterranean. They were remarkable shipbuilders and seafarers. They were the first Mediterranean people to venture beyond the Strait of Gibraltar.

45 Phoenicians Their two most important city-states were Tyre and Sidon.
They produced a red-purple dye made from a small snail called a murex and the trading center for papyrus called Byblos. They were superb craftspeople who worked in wood, metal, glass, and ivory.

46 Phonecians

47 What is the greatest legacy of the Phoenicians?
The Alphabet. The Phoenicians developed a writing system that used symbols to represent sounds. The Phoenicians system was phonetic or one sign was used for one sound.

48 The Phoenician Alphabet

49 What is Palenstine? The region where the Phoenicians lived in a region at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. The Phoenicians were not the only people to live in this area. The Romans had given this area to the Philistines.

50 What is Canaan? This was the home of the Hebrews, later called the Jews. Canaan lay between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea. Hebrews often used the word canaan to refer to all of ancient Palenstine. According to the Bible, Canaan was the land God promised to the Hebrew people.

51 Canaan

52 What is the Torah? Most of what we know about the early history of the Hebrews is contained in the first five books of the Hebrew Bible. Jews call these books the Torah and consider them the most sacred writings in their tradition. Christians respect these books as part of the Old Testament.

53 In what ways are the Hebrew Torah and the Hindu Vedas similar?
Both books are the main sources of knowledge about an ancient people. The Torah informs about the Hebrews and the Vedas about the Aryans. Both books are considered sacred.

54 Who is Abraham? He was chosen by God in the Torah to be the “father” of the Hebrew people. Abraham was a shepherd who lived in the city of Ur, in Mesopotamia. God commanded Abraham and his family to move to Canaan.

55 What is monotheism & covenant?
Monotheism is a belief in a single god. The word comes from the Greek words mono meaning “one” and theism, meaning “god-worship”. A mutual promise between God and the founder of the Hebrew people is called a covenant.

56 The Hebrews worshipped only one God who was called Yahweh.
How did the religion of the Hebrews differ from many of the religions of their neighbors? The Hebrews worshipped only one God who was called Yahweh. Yahweh was not only the God of Hebrews, but of all people. Yahweh fulfilled promises to the Hebrews in a covenant.

57 Who was Moses? The Bible says that the Hebrews migrated to Egypt to escape drought and a threat of famine. At first they were honored in Egypt, but later they were enslaved and as a result the Hebrews fled which was called the “Exodus”. The man who led the Hebrews out of slavery was Moses.

58 Who was Moses? Moses was raised by the Egyptian pharaoh’s daughter.
Moses climbed Mt. Sinai where the Bible says he talked to God and received the stone tablets called the “Ten Commandments”. The Ten Commandments and Moses teachings became the basis for the civil and religious laws of Judaism.

59 Moses

60 Three Israel kings… Saul, David and Solomon.
From about 1020 to 922 BC, the Hebrews united under these three able kings. The new kingdom they developed was Israel.

61 Three Israel kings…

62 King Saul The first of the three kings was chosen largely because of his success in driving out the Philistines from the central hills of ancient Palestine. Saul is portrayed in the Bible as a tragic man who was often jealous of others. Saul was succeeded after his death by David.

63 King David David was Saul’s son-in-law.
He was a popular leader who united the Hebrew tribes and established Jerusalem as the capital and founded a dynasty.

64 King Solomon David was succeeded by his son, Solomon.
Solomon was the most powerful of the Hebrew kings. He built a trading empire. He beautified the capital city of Jerusalem by building a great temple which he built to glorify God.

65 King Solomon The great temple that Solomon had built was to be a permanent home for the Ark of the Covenant which housed the Ten Commandments tablets. The temple was not large, but it gleamed like a gem. The temple was richly decorated with brass and gold.

66 Why did Israel split into two kingdoms?
Solomon’s building projects required high taxes and badly strained the kingdom’s finances. Men were forced to work one out of every three months working on the temple. The expense and forced labor caused discontent. After Solomon’s death, the Jews in the northern part of the kingdom, revolted. By 922 B.C., the kingdom had divided into two. Israel was in the north and Judah was in the south.

67 Why did Babylonia go through a period of captivity?
Both Judah and Israel began paying tribute or peace money paid by a weaker power to a stronger – Assyria. By paying tributes, both Judah and Israel hoped to ensure they would not be attacked by the Assyrians. The tributes being paid were not enough, which led to attacks and captivity.

68 The main problems were:
What were the main problems faced by the Hebrews between 2000 and 700 B.C.? The main problems were: Migration Slavery Conflicts over land Worship of other gods High taxes Kingdom split Paid tributes to other nations Conquered by Assyria

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