Presentation on theme: "Pathos Reader Ethos Writer Logos Text. Is the writer trustworthy? Does she treat the other side with respect? Does he try to establish common ground."— Presentation transcript:
Is the writer trustworthy? Does she treat the other side with respect? Does he try to establish common ground with the reader? Does she use reputable sources to support her ideas? Does he utilize language that is appropriate to his field or academic position?
How does the writer tap into the emotions of their reader? How do they make the argument matter to readers? What happens if an appeal is only based on emotion and nothing else? Note: Ads are particularly effective at implementing pathos, but do they use ethos in an equally effective manner?
Does the argument make sense? Is the argument sound? Does the writer provide evidence (examples, illustrations, analysis, outside sources, etc…) to support his claim? What would happen if an argument was heavy on logos but didn’t employ pathos or ethos?
Tell us what you’re going to tell us (introduction). Tell us (body). Tell us what you just told us (conclusion).
What Is It: ▪ Introduction, 3 body paragraphs, conclusion ▪ Sample-College is good. Why It’s Used: ▪ Logical, coherent organization ▪ Great for 3 page papers, but what about 10 page papers? Why College Professors Don’t Like It: Limits each paragraph to one major point Less time to develop each major idea ▪ Solomon’s essay Limits creativity and doesn’t encourage students to take unique audiences/circumstances into consideration
The introduction is the broad beginning of the paper that answers three important questions: What is this? Why am I reading it? What do you want me to do? You should answer these questions by doing the following: Set the context – provide general information about the main idea, explaining the situation so the reader can make sense of the topic and the claims you make and support State why the main idea is important – tell the reader why s/he should care and keep reading. Your goal is to create a compelling, clear, and convincing essay people will want to read and act upon State your thesis/claim – compose a sentence or two stating the position you will support with logos (sound reasoning: induction, deduction), pathos (balanced emotional appeal), and ethos (author credibility).
Never start an introduction with: “Since the beginning of time, man…” BORING! Liven it up! Tell us a story/anecdote Ask a question State a startling fact ▪ Let’s look at some sample introductions
Thesis Statements End your introduction with your thesis Thesis/claim – compose a sentence or two stating the position you will support with logos(logical appeal), pathos (balanced emotional appeal), and ethos (author credibility).\ Your thesis NEEDS to address the ethicality or appropriateness of the advertiser’s approach!
Thesis Statements should be ARGUMENTATIVE—not descriptive. This ad portrays a sexy woman wearing very little clothing and provocatively drinking a bottle of Evian water. Thesis statements avoid vague language (like "it seems"). Thesis Statements should reference the ad or advertiser. Thesis statements should be specific and focused. A strong thesis proves a point without discussing “everything about …” ▪ Barry Bonds endorsing Cheerios represents all the problems with the sports and marketing industries.
Thesis statements should avoid the first person. ("I believe," "In my opinion") Thesis statements should pass the So what? or Who cares? Test Would your most honest friend ask why he should care or respond with "but everyone knows that"? For instance, "Marketers should not target children in alcohol or cigarette ads," would be unlikely to evoke much opposition. Also, be careful attacking the “sex sells” method of advertising. It’s hard to make any new or interesting arguments against this tactic. In groups, pretend you are Jack Solomon; create a thesis statement that reflects your position on one of the ads mentioned in “Masters of Desire”
Unity The entire paragraph should concern itself with a single focus. If it begins with one focus or major point of discussion, it should not end with another or wander within different ideas. Coherence Coherence is the trait that makes the paragraph easily understandable to a reader. A topic sentence A topic sentence indicates in a general way what idea or thesis the paragraph is going to deal with. Can be placed anywhere, but it’s best to put at beginning of paragraph
Adequate development The topic (which is introduced by the topic sentence) should be discussed fully and adequately. Again, this varies from paragraph to paragraph, depending on the author's purpose, but writers should beware of paragraphs that only have two or three sentences. It's a pretty good bet that the paragraph is not fully developed if it is that short. Some methods to make sure your paragraph is well-developed: Use examples and illustrations Cite data (facts, statistics, evidence, details, and others) Examine testimony (what other people say such as quotes and paraphrases) Use an anecdote or story Define terms in the paragraph Analyze the topic Describe the topic
A good paragraph should contain at least the following four elements: Transition, Topic sentence, specific Evidence and analysis, and a Brief wrap-up sentence– TTEB! A Transition sentence leading in from a previous paragraph to assure smooth reading. This acts as a hand off from one idea to the next. A Topic sentence that tells the reader what you will be discussing in the paragraph. Specific Evidence and analysis that supports one of your claims and that provides a deeper level of detail than your topic sentence. A Brief wrap-up sentence that tells the reader how and why this information supports the paper’s thesis.
When you begin a new idea or point. New ideas should always start in new paragraphs. If you have an extended idea that spans multiple paragraphs, each new point within that idea should have its own paragraph. Hint: If you use a transition word within the same paragraph (i.e. however), then you’ve probably moved on to a new idea. When your readers need a pause. Breaks in paragraphs function as a short "break" for your readers—adding these in will help your writing more readable. You would create a break if the paragraph becomes too long or the material is complex. When you are ending your introduction or starting your conclusion. Your introductory and concluding material should always be in a new paragraph. Many introductions and conclusions have multiple paragraphs depending on their content, length, and the writer's purpose.
Picking up key phrases from the previous paragraph and highlighting them in the next can create an obvious progression for readers. Many times, it only takes a few words to draw these connections. Instead of writing transitions that could connect any paragraph to any other paragraph, write a transition that could only connect one specific paragraph to another specific paragraph.
Example: Amy Tan became a famous author after her novel, The Joy Luck Club, skyrocketed up the bestseller list. There are other things to note about Tan as well. Amy Tan also participates in the satirical garage band the Rock Bottom Remainders with Stephen King and Dave Barry. Revision: Amy Tan became a famous author after her novel, The Joy Luck Club, skyrocketed up the bestseller list. Though her fiction is well known, her work with the satirical garage band the Rock Bottom Remainders receives far less publicity.
Example: Overall, Management Systems International has logged increased sales in every sector, leading to a significant rise in third-quarter profits. Another important thing to note is that the corporation had expanded its international influence. Example: Fearing for the loss of Danish lands, Christian IV signed the Treaty of Lubeck, effectively ending the Danish phase of the 30 Years War. But then something else significant happened. The Swedish intervention began.
When you rebut or refute an opposing position, use the following three-part organization: The opponent’s argument – Usually, you should not assume that your reader has read or remembered the argument you are refuting. Thus at the beginning of your paragraph, you need to state, accurately and fairly, the main points of the argument you will refute. Your position – Next, make clear the nature of your disagreement with the argument or position you are refuting. Your position might assert, for example, that a writer has not proved his assertion because he has provided evidence that is outdated, or that the argument is filled with fallacies. Your refutation – The specifics of your counterargument will depend upon the nature of your disagreement. If you challenge the writer’s evidence, then you must present the more recent evidence. If you challenge assumptions, then you must explain why they do not hold up. If your position is that the piece is filled with fallacies, then you must present and explain each fallacy.
If arguing that an ad is appropriate, you have to show that someone would disagree with that position. Status quo Solomon Outside sources
Summarize your main thesis, but do not simply reorganize the same words from your original thesis statement. Include the same idea, but write it in a different way. Include ideas for further research or possible questions that still need to be explored. Do not end your paper as if there is nothing left to be said on the subject! Bookending: Play off an idea introduced in your intro and return to it here.