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Three Kings Saul – David - Solomon The United Monarchy.

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1 Three Kings Saul – David - Solomon The United Monarchy

2 Review of Salvation-History Patriarchs – Abraham … Joseph Captivity in Egypt Exodus – Moses Creation of Nation, Covenant, Law Wilderness Conquest – Joshua Judges – Samuel

3 Kingship in Israel The monarchy lasted 400 yrs (1020-587 BC) The monarchy lasted 400 yrs (1020-587 BC) During this time the problems Samuel foresaw would become a reality. During this time the problems Samuel foresaw would become a reality. The Confederacy is united for a while (United Monarchy) under Saul, David and Solomon. It then divides into the Northern and Southern Kingdoms with some interactions between the two. The Confederacy is united for a while (United Monarchy) under Saul, David and Solomon. It then divides into the Northern and Southern Kingdoms with some interactions between the two. The Monarchy and Religious Life are closely connected The Monarchy and Religious Life are closely connected

4 Crisis in Israel Samuel was more influential than any of his predecessors. But what would happen when he died? Samuel was getting old and his sons had shown themselves incapable of following him. Samuel was more influential than any of his predecessors. But what would happen when he died? Samuel was getting old and his sons had shown themselves incapable of following him. Although the Philistines had been defeated at Mizpah (1 Sam 7) they remained a threat, and so a stable leadership was vey important. Although the Philistines had been defeated at Mizpah (1 Sam 7) they remained a threat, and so a stable leadership was vey important. The people wanted a king they could see – “a king like all the nations”. The people wanted a king they could see – “a king like all the nations”.

5 Historical Bible Books 1 Samuel 8-31 & 2 Samuel 1 Kings 1-12 1 Chronicles & 2 Chronicles 1-9 The Books of Samuel and Kings are historical narratives with some theological comment.

6 Chronicles A post-exilic theological history. It contains: Genealogies The United Monarchy – David & Solomon Judah during divided monarchy The emphases are on covenant loyalty as models for times of restoration, the central role of the temple, the nature of true worship, the blessings of obedience and retribution for disobedience.

7 Israel in the time of the Judges After settling in Canaan, Israel is best described as a Confederacy. In the period of the Judges there is no central authority. Israel is a theocracy – a nation ruled directly by God. The tribes are united by a common history, religion and language. As external threats become more intense, is there need for some new order?

8 Choosing the King Israel asks for a king. Samuel is commissioned by God to give them a king. Israel asks for a king. Samuel is commissioned by God to give them a king. 1 Samuel 9-11. An open gate and a wandering bunch of donkeys brought about an unexpected meeting between the last judge of Israel and her first king. 1 Samuel 9-11. An open gate and a wandering bunch of donkeys brought about an unexpected meeting between the last judge of Israel and her first king. Samuel is given advanced information. Samuel is given advanced information. Private anointing is followed by public proclamation. Private anointing is followed by public proclamation. Samuel withdraws from government, but not from the prophetic role. Samuel withdraws from government, but not from the prophetic role.

9 Saul’s Reign Military campaigns against the Philistines and Amalekites Military campaigns against the Philistines and Amalekites Saul’s Disobedience and Stupidity Saul’s Disobedience and Stupidity  In usurping the prophetic function (1 S 13)  In deliberate disobedience (1 S 15)  In consulting the witch of Endor (1 S 28) Deteriorating relationship with Samuel Deteriorating relationship with Samuel Saul and David Saul and David Battle of Gilboa. Death of Saul and Jonathan. (1 S 31) Battle of Gilboa. Death of Saul and Jonathan. (1 S 31)

10 Saul and David Samuel anoints David (1 S 16) Samuel anoints David (1 S 16) David finds a place at court (1 S 16:14-23) David finds a place at court (1 S 16:14-23) David and Goliath (1 S 17) David and Goliath (1 S 17) Friendship with Jonathan Friendship with Jonathan Saul’s Jealousy and Attempts on David’s Life Saul’s Jealousy and Attempts on David’s Life David as outlaw. David as outlaw. Among the Philistines. Ziklag. Among the Philistines. Ziklag. Sparing Saul’s Life. Sparing Saul’s Life. David Laments Saul and Jonathan. David Laments Saul and Jonathan.

11 Saul’s Failure Saul was a good looking, brave and generous man, but had a fiery temper and unstable personality. As his responsibilities grew, he alternated between clear-headed leadership and violence and depression. Saul was a good looking, brave and generous man, but had a fiery temper and unstable personality. As his responsibilities grew, he alternated between clear-headed leadership and violence and depression. A number of factors contributed to his failure A number of factors contributed to his failure  Philistine pressurePersonality weakness  Rejection by GodRejection by Samuel  Transitional periodRise of David Why was he God’s choice in the first place? Why was he God’s choice in the first place?

12 Was the King God’s Idea? 1 Samuel 8:1-9 gives the impression that the monarchy was not God’s ideal. 1 Samuel 8:1-9 gives the impression that the monarchy was not God’s ideal. Deuteronomy 17:14-20 describe God’s prior provision for a king. Deuteronomy 17:14-20 describe God’s prior provision for a king. Saul was anointed king Saul was anointed king Is the problem that Israel wanted to be like other nations? Is their king to replace God? Is the problem that Israel wanted to be like other nations? Is their king to replace God? Is the first choice of king meant to contrast an initially promising but ultimately unsuitable king with the “man after God’s heart”? Is the first choice of king meant to contrast an initially promising but ultimately unsuitable king with the “man after God’s heart”?

13 King David King of Judah at Hebron (2 Samuel 1-4). King of Judah at Hebron (2 Samuel 1-4). Civil War Civil War IshBaal or IshBosheth (=shame) as king IshBaal or IshBosheth (=shame) as king  A weak character who was tool manipulated by army commander Abner  Feeble-minded or a child? David grows stronger. Abner transfers allegiance to David. David grows stronger. Abner transfers allegiance to David. Abner and IshBosheth murdered. Abner and IshBosheth murdered. David invited as king over all Israel. David invited as king over all Israel.

14 King David A throne name? Cf 2 Samuel 21:29 A throne name? Cf 2 Samuel 21:29 King of all Israel (5-12) King of all Israel (5-12) Jerusalem captured Jerusalem captured Victory over Philistines Victory over Philistines Ark brought to Jerusalem Ark brought to Jerusalem The Vision for Temple – 2 Sam 7 The Vision for Temple – 2 Sam 7 Victories – 2 Sam 8, 10 Victories – 2 Sam 8, 10 Rebellions of Absalom and Sheba Rebellions of Absalom and Sheba Census and Plague (1 Chron 21) Census and Plague (1 Chron 21)

15 David the Psalmist 73 Psalms are attributed to David 73 Psalms are attributed to David David was a musician ( 1 Sam 16:14ff) and poet (2 Sam 1:17ff; 23:1-7) David was a musician ( 1 Sam 16:14ff) and poet (2 Sam 1:17ff; 23:1-7) The Psalms display a deep knowledge of God, an awe at creation and God’s amazing acts. God is sovereign. The Psalms display a deep knowledge of God, an awe at creation and God’s amazing acts. God is sovereign. They strongly influenced Jesus’ life and teaching. It was His prayer book. They strongly influenced Jesus’ life and teaching. It was His prayer book. Its realism make it a favourite in Christian worship. Its realism make it a favourite in Christian worship.

16 David’s Campaigns Civil War Civil War Jerusalem Jerusalem Moab Moab Zobeh Zobeh Edom Edom Philistines Philistines Ammon/Syria Ammon/Syria

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18 David’s Family David’s Wives – Michal, Abigail … David’s Wives – Michal, Abigail … Bathsheba Bathsheba A strong King; a weak father A strong King; a weak father Amnon and Tamar Amnon and Tamar Absolom’s Revenge Absolom’s Revenge Woman of Tekoa. Absolom forgiven Woman of Tekoa. Absolom forgiven Absolom’s Revenge Absolom’s Revenge Adonijah and Solomon – rivals for the throne. Adonijah and Solomon – rivals for the throne.

19 Absalom’s Rebellion Absalom’s motives – David had grudgingly pardoned him but would not nominate him as his successor. Absalom’s motives – David had grudgingly pardoned him but would not nominate him as his successor. Absalom’s strategy – 2 Sam 15:1-3 pgives no real evidence of David’s neglect. “In time every regime loses sympathizers and acquires enemies” (Noth). Absalom’s strategy – 2 Sam 15:1-3 pgives no real evidence of David’s neglect. “In time every regime loses sympathizers and acquires enemies” (Noth). Absalom’s support: Ahithophel & Amasa Absalom’s support: Ahithophel & Amasa David is unsure of his support. David is unsure of his support. Other factors – arrogance of Joab, reaction to David’s sin, war weariness. Other factors – arrogance of Joab, reaction to David’s sin, war weariness.

20 King Solomon Solomon’s Wisdom (1 Kings 3) Solomon’s Wisdom (1 Kings 3)  Queen of Sheba (1 Kings 10) Building The Temple (1 Kings 6) Building The Temple (1 Kings 6) God Encounters (1 K 3 & 9; 2 C 1 & 7) God Encounters (1 K 3 & 9; 2 C 1 & 7) Foreign wives (1 K 11) Foreign wives (1 K 11) Solomon’s adversaries (1 K 11) Solomon’s adversaries (1 K 11)  Raised up by God (1 Kings 11:1)  Introducing Jeroboam (1 K 11)

21 Solomon’s Temple From Tabernacle to Temple From Tabernacle to Temple Religious Significance – a place of prayer Religious Significance – a place of prayer The Presence of God & Glory of God The Presence of God & Glory of God Ark of the Covenant Ark of the Covenant Altar – Sacrifices Altar – Sacrifices God’s presence in the Temple was a grace that would be withdrawn if the people were unfaithful ( 1 Kings 6:11-13; 9:1-9). God’s presence in the Temple was a grace that would be withdrawn if the people were unfaithful ( 1 Kings 6:11-13; 9:1-9).

22 Wisdom Literature (attributed to Solomon) Proverbs or wise sayings – 1 Kings 4:32 Proverbs or wise sayings – 1 Kings 4:32  Proverbs 10:1; 25:1 Ecclesiastes – Eccles 1:1 Ecclesiastes – Eccles 1:1  An old man’s reflections on life  Fatalism, Existentialism, Chauvinism, Hedonism, Cynicism, Pessimism  A message for the young (Eccles 12:1) Song of Songs: a love song – Songs 1:1 Song of Songs: a love song – Songs 1:1  Possible Interpretations – 2 people or 3?

23 Was Solomon a good king? The Builder of the Temple The Builder of the Temple Renowned for his wisdom Renowned for his wisdom A golden age of commerce (1 K 9-10) A golden age of commerce (1 K 9-10) But, an overtaxed economy? But, an overtaxed economy? Lack of covenant faithfulness 1 K 11:1-13 Lack of covenant faithfulness 1 K 11:1-13  Introduction of other gods. Syncretism Decline of Kingdom Decline of Kingdom Loss of Edom and Syria – 1 Kings 11 Loss of Edom and Syria – 1 Kings 11 Forced Labour resented by Israelites (1 K 5:13) Forced Labour resented by Israelites (1 K 5:13)

24 Themes occurring in the NT Jesus is a descendent of David. This was one of the characteristics of the Messiah. Jesus is a descendent of David. This was one of the characteristics of the Messiah. (Rev 3:7; 5:5). (Rev 3:7; 5:5). The Jews of Jesus’ day were looking forward to “the coming kingdom of our father David” (Mark 11:10; cf Luke 1:32). The Jews of Jesus’ day were looking forward to “the coming kingdom of our father David” (Mark 11:10; cf Luke 1:32). Jesus is greater than Solomon (Matt 12:42; Luke 11:31). Jesus is greater than Solomon (Matt 12:42; Luke 11:31). Themes of Temple, Kingship, New Israel are found throughout the New Testament. Themes of Temple, Kingship, New Israel are found throughout the New Testament.


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