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Three Kings Saul – David - Solomon The United Monarchy

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Presentation on theme: "Three Kings Saul – David - Solomon The United Monarchy"— Presentation transcript:

1 Three Kings Saul – David - Solomon The United Monarchy

2 Review of Salvation-History
Patriarchs – Abraham … Joseph Captivity in Egypt Exodus – Moses Creation of Nation, Covenant, Law Wilderness Conquest – Joshua Judges – Samuel

3 Kingship in Israel The monarchy lasted 400 yrs (1020-587 BC)
During this time the problems Samuel foresaw would become a reality. The Confederacy is united for a while (United Monarchy) under Saul, David and Solomon. It then divides into the Northern and Southern Kingdoms with some interactions between the two. The Monarchy and Religious Life are closely connected

4 Crisis in Israel Samuel was more influential than any of his predecessors. But what would happen when he died? Samuel was getting old and his sons had shown themselves incapable of following him. Although the Philistines had been defeated at Mizpah (1 Sam 7) they remained a threat, and so a stable leadership was vey important. The people wanted a king they could see – “a king like all the nations”.

5 Historical Bible Books
1 Samuel 8-31 & 2 Samuel 1 Kings 1-12 1 Chronicles & 2 Chronicles 1-9 The Books of Samuel and Kings are historical narratives with some theological comment.

6 Chronicles A post-exilic theological history. It contains: Genealogies
The United Monarchy – David & Solomon Judah during divided monarchy The emphases are on covenant loyalty as models for times of restoration, the central role of the temple, the nature of true worship, the blessings of obedience and retribution for disobedience.

7 Israel in the time of the Judges
After settling in Canaan, Israel is best described as a Confederacy. In the period of the Judges there is no central authority. Israel is a theocracy – a nation ruled directly by God. The tribes are united by a common history, religion and language. As external threats become more intense, is there need for some new order?

8 Choosing the King Israel asks for a king. Samuel is commissioned by God to give them a king. 1 Samuel An open gate and a wandering bunch of donkeys brought about an unexpected meeting between the last judge of Israel and her first king. Samuel is given advanced information. Private anointing is followed by public proclamation. Samuel withdraws from government, but not from the prophetic role.

9 Saul’s Reign Military campaigns against the Philistines and Amalekites
Saul’s Disobedience and Stupidity In usurping the prophetic function (1 S 13) In deliberate disobedience (1 S 15) In consulting the witch of Endor (1 S 28) Deteriorating relationship with Samuel Saul and David Battle of Gilboa. Death of Saul and Jonathan. (1 S 31)

10 Saul and David Samuel anoints David (1 S 16)
David finds a place at court (1 S 16:14-23) David and Goliath (1 S 17) Friendship with Jonathan Saul’s Jealousy and Attempts on David’s Life David as outlaw. Among the Philistines. Ziklag. Sparing Saul’s Life. David Laments Saul and Jonathan.

11 Saul’s Failure Saul was a good looking, brave and generous man, but had a fiery temper and unstable personality. As his responsibilities grew, he alternated between clear-headed leadership and violence and depression. A number of factors contributed to his failure Philistine pressure Personality weakness Rejection by God Rejection by Samuel Transitional period Rise of David Why was he God’s choice in the first place?

12 Was the King God’s Idea? 1 Samuel 8:1-9 gives the impression that the monarchy was not God’s ideal. Deuteronomy 17:14-20 describe God’s prior provision for a king. Saul was anointed king Is the problem that Israel wanted to be like other nations? Is their king to replace God? Is the first choice of king meant to contrast an initially promising but ultimately unsuitable king with the “man after God’s heart”?

13 King David King of Judah at Hebron (2 Samuel 1-4). Civil War
IshBaal or IshBosheth (=shame) as king A weak character who was tool manipulated by army commander Abner Feeble-minded or a child? David grows stronger. Abner transfers allegiance to David. Abner and IshBosheth murdered. David invited as king over all Israel.

14 King David A throne name? Cf 2 Samuel 21:29 King of all Israel (5-12)
Jerusalem captured Victory over Philistines Ark brought to Jerusalem The Vision for Temple – 2 Sam 7 Victories – 2 Sam 8, 10 Rebellions of Absalom and Sheba Census and Plague (1 Chron 21)

15 David the Psalmist 73 Psalms are attributed to David
David was a musician ( 1 Sam 16:14ff) and poet (2 Sam 1:17ff; 23:1-7) The Psalms display a deep knowledge of God, an awe at creation and God’s amazing acts. God is sovereign. They strongly influenced Jesus’ life and teaching. It was His prayer book. Its realism make it a favourite in Christian worship.

16 David’s Campaigns Civil War Jerusalem Moab Zobeh Edom Philistines


18 David’s Family David’s Wives – Michal, Abigail … Bathsheba
A strong King; a weak father Amnon and Tamar Absolom’s Revenge Woman of Tekoa. Absolom forgiven Adonijah and Solomon – rivals for the throne.

19 Absalom’s Rebellion Absalom’s motives – David had grudgingly pardoned him but would not nominate him as his successor. Absalom’s strategy – 2 Sam 15:1-3 pgives no real evidence of David’s neglect. “In time every regime loses sympathizers and acquires enemies” (Noth). Absalom’s support: Ahithophel & Amasa David is unsure of his support. Other factors – arrogance of Joab, reaction to David’s sin, war weariness.

20 King Solomon Solomon’s Wisdom (1 Kings 3) Queen of Sheba (1 Kings 10)
Building The Temple (1 Kings 6) God Encounters (1 K 3 & 9; 2 C 1 & 7) Foreign wives (1 K 11) Solomon’s adversaries (1 K 11) Raised up by God (1 Kings 11:1) Introducing Jeroboam (1 K 11)

21 Solomon’s Temple From Tabernacle to Temple
Religious Significance – a place of prayer The Presence of God & Glory of God Ark of the Covenant Altar – Sacrifices God’s presence in the Temple was a grace that would be withdrawn if the people were unfaithful ( 1 Kings 6:11-13; 9:1-9).

22 Wisdom Literature (attributed to Solomon)
Proverbs or wise sayings – 1 Kings 4:32 Proverbs 10:1; 25:1 Ecclesiastes – Eccles 1:1 An old man’s reflections on life Fatalism, Existentialism, Chauvinism, Hedonism, Cynicism, Pessimism A message for the young (Eccles 12:1) Song of Songs: a love song – Songs 1:1 Possible Interpretations – 2 people or 3?

23 Was Solomon a good king? The Builder of the Temple
Renowned for his wisdom A golden age of commerce (1 K 9-10) But, an overtaxed economy? Lack of covenant faithfulness 1 K 11:1-13 Introduction of other gods. Syncretism Decline of Kingdom Loss of Edom and Syria – 1 Kings 11 Forced Labour resented by Israelites (1 K 5:13)

24 Themes occurring in the NT
Jesus is a descendent of David. This was one of the characteristics of the Messiah. (Rev 3:7; 5:5). The Jews of Jesus’ day were looking forward to “the coming kingdom of our father David” (Mark 11:10; cf Luke 1:32). Jesus is greater than Solomon (Matt 12:42; Luke 11:31). Themes of Temple, Kingship, New Israel are found throughout the New Testament.

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