Presentation on theme: "Three Kings Saul – David - Solomon The United Monarchy"— Presentation transcript:
1Three Kings Saul – David - Solomon The United Monarchy
2Review of Salvation-History Patriarchs – Abraham … JosephCaptivity in EgyptExodus – MosesCreation of Nation, Covenant, LawWildernessConquest – JoshuaJudges – Samuel
3Kingship in Israel The monarchy lasted 400 yrs (1020-587 BC) During this time the problems Samuel foresaw would become a reality.The Confederacy is united for a while (United Monarchy) under Saul, David and Solomon. It then divides into the Northern and Southern Kingdoms with some interactions between the two.The Monarchy and Religious Life are closely connected
4Crisis in IsraelSamuel was more influential than any of his predecessors. But what would happen when he died? Samuel was getting old and his sons had shown themselves incapable of following him.Although the Philistines had been defeated at Mizpah (1 Sam 7) they remained a threat, and so a stable leadership was vey important.The people wanted a king they could see – “a king like all the nations”.
5Historical Bible Books 1 Samuel 8-31 & 2 Samuel1 Kings 1-121 Chronicles & 2 Chronicles 1-9The Books of Samuel and Kings are historical narratives with some theological comment.
6Chronicles A post-exilic theological history. It contains: Genealogies The United Monarchy – David & SolomonJudah during divided monarchyThe emphases are on covenant loyalty as models for times of restoration, the central role of the temple, the nature of true worship, the blessings of obedience and retribution for disobedience.
7Israel in the time of the Judges After settling in Canaan, Israel is best described as a Confederacy. In the period of the Judges there is no central authority. Israel is a theocracy – a nation ruled directly by God.The tribes are united by a common history, religion and language. As external threats become more intense, is there need for some new order?
8Choosing the KingIsrael asks for a king. Samuel is commissioned by God to give them a king.1 Samuel An open gate and a wandering bunch of donkeys brought about an unexpected meeting between the last judge of Israel and her first king.Samuel is given advanced information.Private anointing is followed by public proclamation.Samuel withdraws from government, but not from the prophetic role.
9Saul’s Reign Military campaigns against the Philistines and Amalekites Saul’s Disobedience and StupidityIn usurping the prophetic function (1 S 13)In deliberate disobedience (1 S 15)In consulting the witch of Endor (1 S 28)Deteriorating relationship with SamuelSaul and DavidBattle of Gilboa. Death of Saul and Jonathan. (1 S 31)
10Saul and David Samuel anoints David (1 S 16) David finds a place at court (1 S 16:14-23)David and Goliath (1 S 17)Friendship with JonathanSaul’s Jealousy and Attempts on David’s LifeDavid as outlaw.Among the Philistines. Ziklag.Sparing Saul’s Life.David Laments Saul and Jonathan.
11Saul’s FailureSaul was a good looking, brave and generous man, but had a fiery temper and unstable personality. As his responsibilities grew, he alternated between clear-headed leadership and violence and depression.A number of factors contributed to his failurePhilistine pressure Personality weaknessRejection by God Rejection by SamuelTransitional period Rise of DavidWhy was he God’s choice in the first place?
12Was the King God’s Idea?1 Samuel 8:1-9 gives the impression that the monarchy was not God’s ideal.Deuteronomy 17:14-20 describe God’s prior provision for a king.Saul was anointed kingIs the problem that Israel wanted to be like other nations? Is their king to replace God?Is the first choice of king meant to contrast an initially promising but ultimately unsuitable king with the “man after God’s heart”?
13King David King of Judah at Hebron (2 Samuel 1-4). Civil War IshBaal or IshBosheth (=shame) as kingA weak character who was tool manipulated by army commander AbnerFeeble-minded or a child?David grows stronger. Abner transfers allegiance to David.Abner and IshBosheth murdered.David invited as king over all Israel.
14King David A throne name? Cf 2 Samuel 21:29 King of all Israel (5-12) Jerusalem capturedVictory over PhilistinesArk brought to JerusalemThe Vision for Temple – 2 Sam 7Victories – 2 Sam 8, 10Rebellions of Absalom and ShebaCensus and Plague (1 Chron 21)
15David the Psalmist 73 Psalms are attributed to David David was a musician ( 1 Sam 16:14ff) and poet (2 Sam 1:17ff; 23:1-7)The Psalms display a deep knowledge of God, an awe at creation and God’s amazing acts. God is sovereign.They strongly influenced Jesus’ life and teaching. It was His prayer book.Its realism make it a favourite in Christian worship.
16David’s Campaigns Civil War Jerusalem Moab Zobeh Edom Philistines Ammon/Syria
18David’s Family David’s Wives – Michal, Abigail … Bathsheba A strong King; a weak fatherAmnon and TamarAbsolom’s RevengeWoman of Tekoa. Absolom forgivenAdonijah and Solomon – rivals for the throne.
19Absalom’s RebellionAbsalom’s motives – David had grudgingly pardoned him but would not nominate him as his successor.Absalom’s strategy – 2 Sam 15:1-3 pgives no real evidence of David’s neglect. “In time every regime loses sympathizers and acquires enemies” (Noth).Absalom’s support: Ahithophel & AmasaDavid is unsure of his support.Other factors – arrogance of Joab, reaction to David’s sin, war weariness.
20King Solomon Solomon’s Wisdom (1 Kings 3) Queen of Sheba (1 Kings 10) Building The Temple (1 Kings 6)God Encounters (1 K 3 & 9; 2 C 1 & 7)Foreign wives (1 K 11)Solomon’s adversaries (1 K 11)Raised up by God (1 Kings 11:1)Introducing Jeroboam (1 K 11)
21Solomon’s Temple From Tabernacle to Temple Religious Significance – a place of prayerThe Presence of God & Glory of GodArk of the CovenantAltar – SacrificesGod’s presence in the Temple was a grace that would be withdrawn if the people were unfaithful ( 1 Kings 6:11-13; 9:1-9).
22Wisdom Literature (attributed to Solomon) Proverbs or wise sayings – 1 Kings 4:32Proverbs 10:1; 25:1Ecclesiastes – Eccles 1:1An old man’s reflections on lifeFatalism, Existentialism, Chauvinism, Hedonism, Cynicism, PessimismA message for the young (Eccles 12:1)Song of Songs: a love song – Songs 1:1Possible Interpretations – 2 people or 3?
23Was Solomon a good king? The Builder of the Temple Renowned for his wisdomA golden age of commerce (1 K 9-10)But, an overtaxed economy?Lack of covenant faithfulness 1 K 11:1-13Introduction of other gods. SyncretismDecline of KingdomLoss of Edom and Syria – 1 Kings 11Forced Labour resented by Israelites (1 K 5:13)
24Themes occurring in the NT Jesus is a descendent of David. This was one of the characteristics of the Messiah.(Rev 3:7; 5:5).The Jews of Jesus’ day were looking forward to “the coming kingdom of our father David” (Mark 11:10; cf Luke 1:32).Jesus is greater than Solomon (Matt 12:42; Luke 11:31).Themes of Temple, Kingship, New Israel are found throughout the New Testament.