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Compensatory-Response Model

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Presentation on theme: "Compensatory-Response Model"— Presentation transcript:

1 Compensatory-Response Model
The compensatory-response model is one version of preparatory-response theory In this model of classical conditioning, the compensatory after-effects to a US are what come to be elicited by the CS Based on the opponent-process theory of emotion / motivation

2 Opponent-Process Theory of Emotion (Solomon & Corbit, 1974)
Emotional events elicit two competing processes: The primary- or A-process that is immediately elicited by the event e.g., taking an exam elicits an unpleasant A-state An opponent- or B-process that is the opposite of the A-process and counteracts it e.g., the pain during the exam (A-state) creates a pleasant relief response (B-state) following the exam

3 Properties of the A and B processes
A-process magnitude & duration of the A-state are determined by the stimulus event magnitude & duration are fixed (no change with experience) B-process dynamic; changes with repeated exposure with repeated exposure the B-state begins earlier, has greater magnitude, & lasts longer if time passes without exposure, the changes in the B-state reverse Changes due to repeated exposure depend upon short delays between presentations

4 Underlying Opponent Processes
First few stimulations After several stimulations

5 Opponent-Process Theory of Emotion
The actual emotional state of the organism is determined by the difference in magnitude between the 2 states: The A-state minus the B-state = end emotional result If A-state > B-state, then the emotion experienced will be A-like If B-state > A-state, then the emotional result will be B-like

6 Resultant Emotional State
First few stimulations After many stimulations

7 Evidence for a Compensatory-Response Model
Siegel (1972) gave rats repeated injections of Insulin Insulin’s effects are to reduce the level of glucose in the blood Tested by giving the rats an injection of saline (instead of insulin) Measured the CR (change in blood glucose levels)

8 Siegel (1972) Results There was a strong CR that occurred, but it was an INCREASE in blood glucose levels (The opposite of Insulin’s direct effect) CR ≠ UR, and the CR was definitely compensatory

9 More Evidence in Support of the Compensatory-Response Model
Conditioned morphine tolerance (Siegel, Hinson, & Frank, 1978) Experimental Group: CS (light change & noise reduction) paired with US (injection of morphine) for 9 days Unpaired Control Group Placebo Control Group (CS paired with injection of saline)

10 Siegel et al. Results (Conditioned Drug Tolerance)
Test: present CS, inject every rat with morphine, & place each rat on a moderately hot surface Measure latency to lick their paws The faster they lick, the quicker they feel the pain

11 Challenges to the Compensatory-Response Model
Eikelboom & Stewart (1982) found that the CR was much like the response to the drug itself (UR) with both opiates like morphine and with stimulants such as cocaine and d-amphetamine. It has been argued that conditioned tolerance effects could be due to habituation of the direct A-process rather than being due to classical conditioning of the opponent B-process.

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