3The War in the Pacific The Main Idea After early defeats in the Pacific, the United States gained the upper hand and began to fight its way island by island to Japan.Reading FocusWhy did the Allies experience a slow start in the Pacific?How did the Allies bring about a shift in their fortunes in the Pacific?What were the major events that marked Allied progress in the late stages of the Pacific war?
5A Slow Start in the Pacific The attack on Pearl Harbor did significant damage to the U.S. Pacific Fleet and it took months to overcome the attack.The Allies decided to focus their energy and resources on defeating the Axis in Europe.The Japanese won a quick string of impressive victories following Pearl Harbor.Drove American forces from Wake Island and GuamCaptured the British stronghold at Hong KongTook control of the Dutch East Indies (known as Indonesia today) and British BorneoDamaged the Allied navies in the Battle of Java SeaConquered British-controlled BurmaThe Japanese soldiers were highly skilled and well trained.The Japanese military had excellent equipment.
7Active Defense in the Pacific 1942- Japanese controlled:Gilbert and Solomon IslandsSouthern New GuineaPhilippinesMalayaSingaporeThailandBurmaAllies- Active DefenseHold on to what remains to them.Need the bases.Secure Hawaii and SomoaProtect the Sea Lanes- Japan had few submarines.
8A Slow Start for the Allies Why did the Allies experience a slow start in the Pacific?Identify – What territories was Japan able to conquer early in World War II?Analyze – In what ways did the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor backfire?Evaluate – Why do you think there was only a small American military force in the Philippines?
9The PhilippinesJapan invaded the American-controlled islands of the Philippines in December 1941.General Douglas MacArthur led the defense of the islands.MacArthur’s troops were no match for the Japanese and he retreated to the Bataan Peninsula. Although he called for reinforcements, war planners decided sending ships was too risky.In April 1942, the 10,000 American and 60,000 Filipino troops on Bataan surrendered.Thousands of these captured soldiers died when the Japanese forced them to march through the steaming forests of Bataan. This became known as the Bataan Death March.
10Allied Advances in the Pacific James DoolittleArmy Lieutenant ColonelLed a group of 16 American bombers on a daring air raid of Tokyo and several other Japanese citiesDoolittle’s raid did not do major damage to the Japanese targets, but it did give the American people something to celebrate and worried Japan’s leaders.Fortunes Shift in the PacificVictory in the Battle of Coral SeaVictory in the Battle of Midway
11Doolittle’s Raid on Tokyo April 18, 1942Carrier launched B-52’s attack TokyoNot much damage but lifted U.S. morale.
12James "Jimmy" Doolittle: Pioneering Aviator and Famed World War II Air Commander (02:44)
13Fortunes Shift in the Pacific Battle of Coral SeaJapan prepared to invade New Guinea.U.S. Admiral Chester Nimitz sent two aircraft carriers to stop the attack.The Americans lost an aircraft carrier in the battle but stopped the Japanese attack.First time the Japanese advance had been haltedBattle of MidwayJapan tried to lure the Americans into a large sea battle around Midway Island.Naval officers had broken a Japanese code and learned of the plan.Nimitz devised a plan to thwart the attack and placed his 3 aircraft carriers carefully.The Americans destroyed 3 of the 4 Japanese carriers and won a major victory.
15Battle of the Coral Sea- May 7+8 , 1942 Japanese- Adm. YamamotoForce a major sea battle to destroy the Allied Pacific Fleet and invade Australia.Thus stop any Allied offensive against Japan.Historic Naval battleshowed Modern ScienceAircraft carrier v. aircraft carrierTactical victory went to Japanese- The “box score”Strategic victory went to U.S.- forcing Japan to stop drive toward Australia.This was the first naval engagement to take place where the opposing ships never fired a shot at each other. Airplane bombers, fighters and torpedo bombers.
18Battle of Midway- June 4-7, 1942 Fought just a month after the Battle of the Coral Sea, Midway was the turning point of the Pacific CampaignYamamoto’s secret plan to surprise the American ships at MidwayWith American ships destroyed,Japan could avenge the bombing of the Japanese home islands.Japan could plug the hole in their Eastern defensive perimeter andJapan could perhaps even invade and take Hawaii.The loss of four carriers stopped the expansion of the Japanese Empire in the Pacific, and put Japan on the defensive.Balance of naval power now shifts to the U.S.A.
19Prior to this action, Japan possessed general naval superiority over the United States and could usually choose where and when to attack. After Midway, the two opposing fleets were essentially equals, and the United States soon took the offensive.Battle of Midway
20Fortunes Shift in the Pacific How did the Allies bring about a shift in their fortunes in the Pacific?Recall – How much damage did Doolittle inflict on Tokyo?Identify Cause and Effect – What were the long-range effects of the U.S. air attack on Tokyo and other Japanese Cities?
21Fortunes Shift in the Pacific Explain – What is the significance of the Battle of the Coral Sea?Summarize – How did the Japanese plan to destroy what remained?Evaluate – How important was breaking Japanese codes to the overall success of the Allied forces?
22Allied Progress in the Pacific Gained control of territory in the Solomon Islands to protect AustraliaUsed powerful combination of land, sea, and air forces to capture key islandsCaptured locations in the Gilbert, Marshall, Caroline, and Mariana islandsTook advantage of American industrial power by replacing ships and aircrafts, which Japan was unable to doEuropean successes allowed more resources to be made available in the Pacific.Recaptured the PhilippinesCaptured strategic Japanese islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa
24The United States Military "Island Hops" Towards Japan (00:58)
25General MacArthur: Supreme Allied Commander of the Southwest Pacific Theater in WWII (02:33)
26The Allies Make Progress GuadalcanalAllies wanted to gain control of the Solomon Islands to protect Australia.Key goal was the capture of an island called GuadalcanalAmerican forces fought for 6 months and finally defeated the Japanese.Navajo Code TalkersHundreds of Native Americans of the Navajo nation served in the Marines as code talkers.They translated messages into a coded version of the Navajo language.Japanese code-breakers never figured it out.The PhilippinesFirst major battle was the Battle of Leyte Gulf.The Allies destroyed most of Japan’s fleet.Japanese began using the kamikaze attack.After months of fighting, the Allies gained control of the Philippines.
28Battle for Guadalcanal - Aug. 7, 1942 On August 8th, 1942, the Americans began their first counter-attack in the Pacific.The fight for the island was long and bitter, with both sides attempting to reinforce their troops. The American forces, however, were victorious. Finally, in February 1943, the island was secured.The naval battle at Guadalcanal, lasting six months from August, 1942, to February, 1943, was the longest sea battle in history. Iron Bottom Sound was filled with some 100 sunken ships.Disease played a major role in troop effectiveness.
30Navajo Code TalkersThe Code Talker's primary job was to talk and transmit information on tactics, troop movements, orders and other vital battlefield information via telegraphs and radios in their native dialect. A major advantage of the code talker system was its speed.Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Peleliu, Iwo Jima: the Navajo code talkers took part in every assault the U.S. Marines conducted in the Pacific from 1942 to 1945.They served in all six Marine divisions, Marine Raider battalions and Marine parachute units, transmitting messages by telephone and radio in their native language -- a code that the Japanese never broke.
31World War II: Navajo Code Talkers in the United States Military (02:33)
32Leyte Gulf and the Philippines The Battle of Leyte Gulf was the largest naval battle in history.It was fought during the Pacific Theatre of Operations PTO of World War II, in the seas surrounding the Philippine island of Leyte from 23 October to 26 October 1944Between the Allies and the Empire of Japan."The Japanese fleet had [effectively] ceased to exist, and, except by land-based aircraft, their opponents had won undisputed command of the sea. When Admiral Ozawa was questioned on the battle after the war he replied 'After this battle the surface forces became strictly auxiliary, so that we relied on land forces, special [Kamikaze] attack, and air power . . there was no further use assigned to surface vessels, with the exception of some special ships.'
34Leyte Gulf and the Philippines At the startNavyLarge carriersSmall CarriersAircraft EmbarkedBattleshipsCruisersDestroyersUnited States824 171212 24141 Japan13 1179 2034LossesNavyLarge carriersSmall CarriersBattleshipsCruisersDestroyersDestroyer EscortsUS-3 21Japan10 11
35The Allies Make Progress What were the major events that marked Allied progress in the late stages of the Civil War?Describe – What was Guadacanal?Analyze – Why were the Solomon Island important to both Japan and the United States?Elaborate – Why do you think the Americans wanted to capture Guadacanal?
36The Allies Make Progress Identify – What was the largest naval battle fought during the war?Evalate – How did the Japanese kamkaze attacks affect the psychological side of the war?