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History of chemistry in Latvia and Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis Professor Jānis Stradiņš Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis Latvian Academy.

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Presentation on theme: "History of chemistry in Latvia and Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis Professor Jānis Stradiņš Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis Latvian Academy."— Presentation transcript:

1 History of chemistry in Latvia and Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis Professor Jānis Stradiņš Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis Latvian Academy of Sciences

2 David Hieronimus Grindel

3 David Hieronimus GRINDEL ( ) Latvian pharmaceutist, chemist, medical doctor, naturalist Professor and rector of Tartu (Dorpat) University ( ) Pharmaceutist and physician in Riga ( , ) Founder of the first pharmaceutical and chemical journal in Russian Empire: Russisches Jahrbuch für die Chemie und Pharmacie ( ) Founder of the first Pharmaceutical – Chemical Society in Russian Empire (Riga, 1803) Antifever medications (“china-surrogat”) Textbook: “Die organischen Körper chemisch betrachtet” (Riga, 1811)

4 Pharmaceutic chemical company in Riga Founded in 1991 on the basis of Experimental Plant of Institute of Organic Synthesis (since ) Name from GRINDel and EXperimental

5 Theodor von GROTTHUSS ( ) Courland nobleman and amateur chemist and physicist First theory of electrolysis (Rome, 1805; Mitau (Jelgava), 1806) Basic laws of photochemistry (Mitau, 1818) Worked in his estate Gedučiai (Northern Lithuania) and in Mitau

6 Theodor von GROTTHUSS

7

8 Wilhelm OSTWALD ( ) Born in Riga Professor in Riga Polytechnicum ( ), later in Leipzig Founder of physical chemistry (1887) main laws of homogenous catalysis (1884) One of originators of free ion theory (together with Sv.ARRHENIUS, Riga, ) Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1909)

9 Monument devoted to Nobel laureate Wilhelm Ostwald

10 Stereochemistry group of Riga

11 Paul WALDEN ( ) Chemist of Latvian origin, student of W.Ostwald Work: –Riga Polytechnicum ( ) –Walden inversion (1895) –Founder of dynamic stereochemistry, electrochemistry of nonaqueous solutions ( ) –Concept of “ion solvatation” (1905) –Ionic liquids 7 times advanced for Nobel prize ( , 1914)

12 Paul WALDEN Award for Scientific Citation of Chemical Breakthrough – ACS, – UNESCO proclaimed year of Paul Walden (150th anniversary, 26th July, 2013) P. Walden medal (since 1987) P. Walden monument (2003) P. Walden streets in Riga and Valmiera (2013)

13 Envelope and stamp devoted to Paul Walden

14 Monument devoted to Paul Walden

15 Cradle of chemistry education in Latvia and IOS

16 Gustavs Vanags

17 Gustavs Vanags ( ) Latvian organic chemist Professor at University of Latvia ( ) One of the founders of Institute of Organic Synthesis Cyclic β-diketones, analytical reagents, blood anticoagulants etc. Latvian school of organic chemistry (G.Duburs) G.Vanags award in chemistry (LAS, since 1970)

18 Solomon HILLERS ( ) Latvian organic and medicinal chemist Founder of the Institute of Organic Synthesis (1957), its first director ( ) Heterocyclic chemistry (furanes, aziridines, pyrimidines, purines etc.) Outstanding organizer and manager of science Originator of new medicinals Organizer of the international journal “Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds” (English, Russian, since 1965), its first Editor-in-chief ( ) Solomon Hillers medal (since 1990, IOS) S.Hillers award in Biomedicine (since 2004, LAS, IOS, Grindex, BSRC)

19 Solomon Hillers

20 Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis

21 Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis (I) Founded 1957; till 1993 part of Latvian Academy of Sciences Directors: S.Hillers, G.Čipēns, E.Lukevics, I.Kalviņš (since 2003) Staff: 579 people 1991, 310 in 1997, 300 in 2012 A complex institute: chemists, microbiologists, experts in biomedicine, engineers, computer scientists, molecular biologists, gene engineers (till 1991)

22 Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis (II) Investigation of new medicinals (generic preparations and original pharmaceutics) 65 medical preparations, pesticides, herbicides in the former USSR 37 preparations allowed for use in medicine, among them 16 original pharmaceutics 25% of all original preparations invented in the former USSR (1985) Cooperation with companies Grindex, Olainfarm, Biolar in Riga and Olaine (iniciated by S.Hiller in 1960-ies)

23 Early pharmaceuticals produced by IOS Nitrofuran preparations (Furagine, Furasol (Solafur), Furamag. S.Hillers, since 1957 – antibacterials, uroseptics) Dihydropyridines (cardiovascular diseases, G.Duburs) Remantadine – antiviral adamantane preparation (J.Polis, 1972) Tegafur (Ftorafur) – anticancer preparation (S.Hillers, R.Zhuk, M.Lidaka, since 1972; exported to Japan) Mildronate – cardioprotector and immunoprotector (I.Kalviņš, since 1975) Peptide preparations (G.Čipēns e.a.)

24 Nitrofuran preparations FurazolidoneFurazoline Furadonine Furagine (Furasol, Furamag)

25 FtorafurRemantadine

26 Carnitine and mildronate Carnitine discovered by Roberts Krimbergs and Vladimir Gulevich from muscle exctracts in 1905 (Moscow) Acetylcarnitine discovered by R.Krimbergs in 1932 (Riga) Mildronate synthesized in 1975 (Ivars Kalviņš, Riga) Carnitine Acetylcarnitine Mildronate ɣ -butyrobetaine


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