Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Group Influence and Opinion Leadership"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 11 Group Influence and Opinion Leadership By Michael R. SolomonConsumer BehaviorBuying, Having, and BeingSixth Edition
2Opening Vignette: Zachary Does Zachary meet your mental stereotype for a Harley Davidson owner?Why does Zachary desire to have more Harley “stuff”?How do Zach’s fellow RUBs influence his purchases?What benefits does Zach enjoy from his association with other Harley owners?
4Reference Groups Reference Group An actual or imaginary individual or group conceived of having significant relevance upon an individual’s evaluations, aspirations, or behaviorThree ways reference groups influence consumersInformationalUtilitarianValue-ExpressiveSome people are more influential than others in affecting consumers’ product preferences.
5Relative Reference Groups’ Influence on Purchase Intention Figure 11.1
6When Reference Groups Are Important Social Power:The capacity to alter the actions of othersReferent Power:When consumers imitate qualities by copying behaviors of a prominent person they admire.Information Power:Able to influence consumer opinion by virtue of their (assumed) access to the “truth”Legitimate Power:Granted to people by virtue of social agreements, sometimes conferred by a uniform
7Expert PowerA physician has expert power, and a white coat reinforces this expertise by conferring legitimate power.
8When Reference Groups Are Important (cont.) Expert Power:Derived from possessing specific knowledge about a content areaReward Power:When a person or group has the means to provide positive reinforcementCoercive Power:Influencing a person by social or physical intimidation
9Types of Reference Groups Any external influence that provides social cuesNormative Influence:The reference group helps to set and enforce fundamental standards of conduct.Comparative Influence:When decisions about specific brands or activities are affected.
10VIDEO: BMW Motorcycles BMW Motorcycles uses its web site to promote communication among reference groups who use the site to discuss their product experience.Click image to play video.
11Discussion QuestionMarketers often portray products being used in groups that represent favorable reference groups to the target market.What type of message does this ad convey? What type of influence is this ad designed to exert on its target audience?
12Brand Communities and Tribes Brand Community:A set of consumers who share a set of social relationships based upon usage or interest in a product.BrandfestsConsumer Tribe:A group of people who share a lifestyle and who can identify with each other because of a shared allegiance to an activity or product.Tribal Marketing:To link one’s product to the needs of a group as a whole.
13Products as a Way to be Popular Many products, especially those targeted to young people, are often touted as a way to take the inside track to popularity. This Brazilian ad lets us know about people who don’t like a certain shoe.
14Membership vs. Aspirational Reference Groups Comprise idealized figures such as successful business people, athletes, or performers.Membership Reference GroupOrdinary people whose consumption activities provide informational social influence.Propinquity: Physical nearness.Mere Exposure: Liking persons or things simply as a result of seeing them more often (mere exposure phenomenon)Group Cohesiveness: The degree to which members of a group are attracted to each other and value their group membership.
16Positive Versus Negative Reference Groups Avoidance GroupsGroups that consumers purposely try to distance themselves fromNerdsDruggiesPreppiesThe motivation to distance oneself from a negative reference group can be as powerful or more powerful than the desire to please a positive group
17Positive Reference Groups This recruiting ad presents a compelling role model for young women contemplating a career in the armed forces.
18Consumers Do it in Groups Deindividuation:A process in which individual identities become submerged within a group.Social Loafing:People do not devote as much to a task when their contribution is part of a larger group effortRisky Shift:Group members are willing to consider riskier alternatives subsequent to group discussionDiffusion of Responsibility:As more people are involved in a decision, each individual is less accountable for the outcome
19DeindividuationCostumes hide our true identities and encourage deindividuation.
20Consumers Do it in Groups (cont.) Value Hypothesis:Riskiness is a culturally valued characteristic to which individuals feel pressure to conformDecision Polarization:Whichever direction the group members were leaning toward before discussion becomes more extreme subsequent to discussionHome Shopping Parties:Capitalize on group pressures to increase sales
21Home Shopping PartiesWomen at a home Tupperware party.
22Group InfluencesGroup pressure often influences our clothing choices.
23Conformity Conformity A change in beliefs or actions as a reaction to real or imagined group pressure.NormsInformal rules that govern behavior.Factors Influencing the Likelihood of ConformityCultural PressuresFear of DevianceCommitmentPrinciple of Least InterestGroup Unanimity, Size, and ExpertiseSusceptibility to Interpersonal InfluenceRole-relaxed consumers
24Social Comparison Social Comparison Theory: Resisting Conformity: Asserts that people look to the behavior of others to increase the stability of their self-evaluationCo-oriented peer: A person of equivalent standingResisting Conformity:Independence: Being oblivious or indifferent to the expectations of othersAnticonformity: Defiance of the group is the actual behaviorReactance: The negative emotional state that results when we are deprived of our freedom to choose
25Discussion QuestionThis ad for a video game says, “Conformity Bytes!”, but then captions, “Join the Revolution!” Why?Does this ad encourage independence or anticonformity?
26Word-of-Mouth Communication Word-of-Mouth (WOM):Product information transmitted by individuals to individuals.Negative WOM and the Power of Rumors:Negative WOM: Consumers weigh negative info from other consumers more heavily than they do positive comments
27Word-of-MouthThe U.S. Postal Service hopes to create a buzz via word of mouth.
28RumorsHoaxkill.com is a Web site dedicated to tracking hoaxes and debunking product rumors.
30Changing Information Serial Reproduction: Technique to examine the phenomenon that information changes as it is transmitted among consumersAssimilation: Distortions tend to follow a pattern from ambiguous to conventional to fit with existing schemasLeveling: Details are omitted to simplify structureSharpening: Prominent details are accentuated
31Cutting-Edge WOM Strategies Virtual CommunitiesVirtual Community of Consumption: A collection of people whose online interactions are based upon shared enthusiasm for and knowledge of a specific consumption activity.Multi-user Dungeons (MUD)Rooms, rings and lists (e.g. chat rooms)BoardsBlogs (weblog)
33Four Types of Virtual Community Members Tourists:Lack strong social ties to the groupMinglers:Maintain strong social ties, but are not interested in the central consumption activityDevotees:Express strong interest in the activity, but have few social attachments to the groupInsiders:Exhibit both strong social ties and strong interest in the activity
35Guerrilla Marketing Guerrilla Marketing Viral Marketing Promotional strategies that use unconventional locations and intensive word-of-mouth campaigns to push products.Brand AmbassadorsViral MarketingRefers to the strategy of getting customers to sell a product on behalf of the company that creates it.
36Guerrilla Marketing Ads Ads painted on sidewalks are one form of guerrilla marketing.
37Opinion Leadership The Nature of Opinion Leadership Opinion Leaders: People who are knowledgeable about products and whose advice is taken seriously by others.Homophily: The degree to which a pair of individuals is similar in terms of education, social status, and beliefs.How Influential Is an Opinion Leader?Generalized Opinion Leader: Somebody whose recommendations are sought for all types of purchases.Monomorphic: An expert in a limited field.Polymorphic: An expert in many fields.
38Opinion Leaders Market Shoes Opinion leadership is a big factor in the marketing of athletic shoes. Many styles first become popular in the inner city and then spread by word-of-mouth.
39Types of Opinion Leaders InnovatorsEarly purchasersInnovative CommunicatorsOpinion leaders who also are early purchasersOpinion leaders also are likely to be opinion seekersThe Market MavenDescribes people who are actively involved in transmitting marketplace information of all types.The Surrogate ConsumerA person who is hired to provide input in purchase decisions.
40Perspectives on the Communications Process Figure 11.4
41Fashion Opinion Leaders Fashion opinion leaders tend to be knowledgeable about clothing and highly motivated to stay on top of fashion trends.
42Identifying Opinion Leaders Self-designated Opinion LeadersSociometric MethodsTrace Communication patterns among members of a group.Referral BehaviorNetwork Analysis: Focuses on communication in social systemsReferral NetworkTie Strength: The nature of the bond between people.Bridging Function: Allows a consumer access between subgroups.Cliques: Subgroups