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Designing Radical Change Cassie Solomon September, 2011 1.

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1 Designing Radical Change Cassie Solomon September, 2011 1

2 75% of change efforts fail – why? 2 2

3 But there is a way to improve these odds There is nothing so useful as a good theory.There is nothing so useful as a good theory. Kurt Lewin 3

4 The good news is that we are good at change. Behavior is the key Adapting to our environment is key 44

5 Anthropology contributes a behavioral view of work ScenePracticeBehavior Behavior is something you can observe. 5

6 Rule #1 Describe the change you want to see in terms of behavior. 66

7 Exercise One: Construct a Scene Think like a screenwriter or a playwright Who are the characters? What do they look and sound like? Set the scene - where are they? What tools are they using? What is the dialogue? What are they saying? This is an exercise in focusing on behavior. 7

8 Behavior is imbedded in 8 systems Workplace Design Organization Decision Allocation Information Distribution Measurement Rewards People Task  Skills Training  Work Process  Who has access to information?  Roles  Responsibility  Metrics  Compensation  Intrinsic & Social rewards  Org chart  Meetings cycle Work Systems. Source: Copyright Shea & Associates, Inc. Behavior  Physical  Virtual 8 8

9 Rule #2: Design the environment to support the changes you seek. 99

10 Rule #3: Shea’s Maxim The more systems you change, the better; change at least four. 10

11 Exploring the eight elements of a system 1.People 2.Measurement 3.Rewards 4.Organization 5.Decision-Making 6.Information Distribution 7.Workplace Design 8.Task PROWD TIMe 11

12 People Who is involved in the scene? Do they currently have the right skills? Do you need to provide training? Can you provide examples? 12

13 Rewards Extrinsic Rewards –Aligning compensation –Pay for Performance –Bonus pay Intrinsic Rewards Social Rewards –Recognition –Stretch assignments –Visibility 13

14 Measurement “ In God we trust, all others bring data.” Dr. W. Edward Deming 14

15 Information Distribution Who gets the information? When? How is performance measured in the system, and who sees that? BEST PRACTICE INFORMATION PERFORMANCE VISIBILITY 15

16 Organization Organization can mean lines and boxes, where roles fit into the structure It can mean meeting systems, too. These involve who needs to collaborate and share information with whom. 16

17 Decision Allocation Who is involved and HOW? Who is accountable? Where is the authority to make decisions or accept recommendations? 17

18 Workplace design Ease of use… physical & virtual space Design for quality Think lean manufacturing Tools – physical and virtual Physical architecture – proximity Hardwiring with technology 18

19 Process Mapping or Planning Task 19

20 The Power of ROLE is often overlooked Where do you fit in the structure? –Organization What work are you responsible for? –Task How much authority do you have to make decisions? –Decision making What skills and competencies do you need? –People Work Systems. Source: Copyright Shea & Associates, Inc. 20

21 RACI: The Decision Making Lever “ 21

22 Most organizations have two structures operating simultaneously. Horizontal/Project Structure Sponsor You are here, too. Committee or Task Force or Project Boss Manager You are here 22 Vertical Structure 22

23 RACI Codes Defined 23

24 The Output: A RACI Matrix Decisions or Activities Type or degree of participation Roles of Participation 24

25 RACI Matrix Example Role/ Functions 25

26 To create an effective team, clarify the role of the group 26

27 Use RACI codes on your meeting agendas to clarify the role of the group Agenda ItemPerson (R)Role of the Group 1. Implementation planMaryR 2. Vacation policy changes TomI 3. Quality scorecardTerriC Plan the time you give each topic according to the group’s role for that item; “I” topics should have the least time. 27

28 Empowerment and team development The more authority and autonomy you give a group, the more it will develop into a team. How will you know if a team is developing? It will begin to express and experience differences of opinion. If you want a team to develop, you will need to give it the resource of enough TIME to work. Ask yourself, “Can I give my team more C’s, R’s and A’s?” 28

29 The recipe for an effective team Using RACI and other tools, clarify the following: –Deadline –Agency and representation –Role of the Group – Use a RACI chart –Task 29

30 Advice to sponsors Clarify the group’s role on the issue: A, R or C - Avoid “I” groups at all cost Clarify your own role(s) Clarify the task Set aggressive deadlines and give the group time to do its work 30

31 One methodology for leading change 31

32 Step 1: Create a microcosm group Meaning “the world in little” A smaller system which is representative of or analogous to a larger one; a small, complete world Who do you represent in this group? 32

33 Step 2. Agree on the current state Use data Share the view across the silos Work on the group dynamics Establish “felt need” by understanding the problem 33

34 Step 3. Give the group simple design tools Teach the Shea Work Systems Model Teach RACI to analyze decision- making and roles 34

35 Step 4. Use Idealized Design Russell Ackoff planning methodology Frees people from current constraints Allows more creative thinking Design using the Shea Work Systems Model 35

36 Step 5. Refine the recommendation Use the group or sub-groups to refine the recommendation Pull in other people as necessary or desirable Pull together the business case for the changes you want to make Present the final recommendation for approval 36

37 Resources Work Systems Model –Greg Shea –– –Cassie Solomon – – RACI training materials, and information Books Designing Radical Change by Gregory P. Shea PhD. and Cassie Solomon, Wharton Digital Press, Spring 2012. 37

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