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13 August 2005 The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 1 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Benjamin T Solomon iSETI LLC PO Box 831 Evergreen, CO 80437, USA http://www.iSETI.us/

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 2 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Objective of the Presentation Objective: To seriously investigate Laithwaite’s claims of “mass transfer”: 1. As this potentially has a bearing on the work of researchers, such as Podkletnov & Nieminen (1992), Hayasaka & Takeuchi (1989), Luo, Nie, Zhang, & Zhou (2002). 2. To present a potential avenue for gravity modification research, based on the Special Theory of Relativity.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 3 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Agenda 1.Some Theoretical Considerations 2.Deconstructing the Laithwaite & NASA Experiments 3.What did Laithwaite Demonstrate? 4.The Solomon-Laithwaite Experiments

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 4 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Some Theoretical Considerations Section Objective: To present a case for time dilation as the primary cause of motion, and therefore, of the gravitational field.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 5 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Time Dilation Time slows down as the velocity of an object increases. That is the “distance” between clock ticks increases. Note that the effect is non-linear, and not noticeable at “normal” velocities.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 6 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Time Dilation Time slows down as one approaches the center of a gravitational source. Or the “space” between clock ticks increases as one approaches the source of a gravitational field.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 7 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Time Dilation The time dilation behavior of a gravitational field is such that the escape velocity is strictly governed by the Lorentz-FitzGerald transformation equation for time dilation. V e =c. √ ( 1 – (1 / t e ) 2 ) V e =escape velocity at a given altitude t e =time dilation at the same altitude. C=velocity of light, 299,792,458 m/s

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 8 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Time Dilation Source: Ben Solomon, “A New Approach to Gravity & Space Propulsion Systems”, International Space Development Conference 2005, May 25, San Jose, California. (http://www.iseti.us/) The hypothesis of “An Epiphany on Gravity” 1, was that time dilation causes gravity, not the other way around, as with modern physics. 1 Ben Solomon, “An Epiphany on Gravity”, Journal of Theorectics, December 3, 2001, Vol. 3-6. (http://www.iseti.us/)

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 9 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Hunt for the Window: Gravity versus Centripetal Force Field You have to find the window where physics behaves “differently”. Bob Schlitters

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 10 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Principle of Equivalence The Principle of Equivalence (Schutz 2003) states that if gravity were everywhere uniform we could not distinguish it from acceleration. That is a point observer within a gravitational field would not be able to distinguish between a gravitational field and acceleration. Taking this to the limit, we will assume that any relationship with respect to the Lorentz-FitzGerald transformation and gravitational fields are interchangeable.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 11 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Key to Analysis Further, we will use the nomenclature ‘tangential’, and ‘radial’ to represent the orthogonal relationships of orbital and freefall motion respectively. We will compare gravitational with centripetal, tangential, and radial motions respectively. Tangential Radial The key to the theoretical analysis is to compare the gravitational field and the centripetal force field in their entirety, and not as a point observer in the field.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 12 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Time Dilation Formulae Tangential time dilation, t t, at a distance, R, from the center of a gravitational field is given by t t =1 / √( 1 -GM/(R.c 2 ) ) Tangential time dilation, t t, at a distance, r, from the center of a plate spinning at ω revolutions per second, is given by t t =√( 1 – ω 2.r 2 / c 2 )

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 13 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Tangential Time Dilation as f(Radial Distance) Centripetal Force FieldGravitational Field Gradient is POSITIVEGradient is NEGATIVE If gyroscopic spin is to produce gravity modifications, of the type that results in some amount of weightlessness, the gyroscopic spin has to result in a parameter value that is opposite to gravity’s. Gradient is a good candidate. Computational Fault Line

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 14 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 1 st Part of the Window 1 st Part of the Window: The magnitude and direction of the time dilation vector created by gravitational or centripetal fields are indicators of the type of force field. Increasing Time Dilation ≡ Increasing Force

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 15 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Gradient & Curvature Formulae: Gravity Tangential gradient, dt t /dR, and curvature, C t, at a distance, R, from the center of a gravitational field is given by dt t /dR=- (GM/ 2 c 2 )/R 2 C t =[(K t /R 3 ).((1- K t /R) -3/2 ) + (3K t 2 /4R 4 ).((1- K t /R) -5/2 )]/[1 + (K t 2 /4R 4 )/(1- K t /R) 3 ] 3/2 ≈d 2 t t /dR 2 ≈(GM/c 2 )/ R 3 where K t =GM/c 2

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 16 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Gradient & Curvature Formulae: Centripetal Force Gradient, dt t /dR, and curvature, C t, at a distance, r, from the center of a plate spinning at ω revolutions per second, is given by dt t /dr=(k r r).(1 - k r r 2 ) -3/2 Ct=[k t.(1- k t r 2 ) -3/2 + (3.k t 2.r 2 ).(1- k t r 2 ) -5/2 ] / [1 + {(k r r).(1 – k r.r 2 ) -3/2 )} 2 ] 3/2 ≈d 2 t t /dr 2 ≈k t. + 3.k t 2. r 2 where k t =ω 2 / c 2

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 17 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Tangential Gradient & Curvature as f(Radial Distance) Centripetal Force FieldGravitational Field 1.Curvature is POSITIVE 2.Change in Curvature ≠ constant 3.Gradient is POSITIVE 4.Change in Gradient = constant If correct, gravitational effects are due to gradient, and not curvature. 1.Curvature is POSITIVE 2.Change in Curvature ≠ constant 3.Gradient is NEGATIVE 4.Change in Gradient ≠ constant

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 18 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 2 nd Part of the Window 2 nd Part of the Window: The force created by gravitational or centripetal fields are a function of the gradient of the time dilation vector. Positive gradient = repulsion Negative gradient = attraction

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 19 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Gravitation versus Centripetal Force Field 1.Gravity’s time dilation field is funnel shaped. 1.Centripetal force’s time dilation field is conic. 2.There isn’t any radial time dilation.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 20 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Gravitational Field Tangential Time Dilation Radial Time Dilation For a Gravitational Field the relationship between tangential and radial time dilation is given by, 1/t r 2 – 1/t t 2 = 1

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 21 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Rotation & Spin Field For a Gyroscopic Centripetal Field the relationship between tangential and radial time dilation has not yet been determined. Tangential Time Dilation No Rotation With Rotation Tangential Time Dilation Radial Time Dilation When Rotation exceeds a threshold value, the “flat”, tangential only, time dilation field pops and centripetal forces facilitate a radial time dilation field. The figures depict field strength values, not physical shape.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 22 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Deconstructing the Laithwaite & NASA Experiments Section Objective: To deconstruct both Laithwaite’s and NASA’s experiments in a manner as to, 1. Ask the most possible questions. 2. Present theoretical validation or rebuttal of the observed effects.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 23 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Prof Eric Laithwaite – A Short Biography -Prof. Eric Laithwaite (1921 - 1997) -The inventor of the linear motor -The inventor of the maglev technology used in Japanese and German high speed trains. -Emeritus Professor of Heavy Electrical Engineering at Imperial College, London, UK -Presented some anomalous gyroscopic behavior for the Faraday lectures at the Royal Institution, in 1973. -Included in this lecture-demonstration was a big motorcycle wheel weighing 50lb. -He spun and raised effortlessly above his head with one hand, claiming it had lost weight and so contravened Newton's third law.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 24 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Excerpts for BBC Video ‘Heretic’ Video courtesy of Gyroscopes.org, http://www.gyroscopes.org/http://www.gyroscopes.org/

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 25 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Laithwaite – Inferred Big Wheel Weight Laithwaite Demonstration: Prof. Eric Laithwaite’s carries a 50 lb wheel with both hands. My Duplication: 1.I was comfortable with a 40 lb weight. 2.I could just barely carry a 60 lb weight. My Conclusion: The total weight of the wheel was some where between 40 and 60 lbs.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 26 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Laithwaite – Inferred Gyroscopic Big Wheel Weight Laithwaite Demonstration: Note that, Prof. Eric Laithwaite’s wrist is apparently carrying the full 50 lb wheel, on a horizontal rod. At this point the rod is moving horizontally. My Duplication: Using a 3 foot pole weighing 2.5 lb: 1.I could just barely carry a 3 lb weight at its end. 2.I could not lift a 7 lb weight with my wrist alone. My Conclusion: 1.The total effective weight of the wheel and rod could not have been much greater than 5.5 lb. 2.A rotation of about 6-7 rpm is insufficient to keep the wheel lifted by centripetal force (requires at least 80 rpm).

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 27 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 If Weight Exists, Suggests (1) Weight is 50 lb (23 kg) Is the wrist capable of a moment of ? 50 lb x 32 ft/s 2 x 3 ft = 3,072 lbft 2 /s 2 23 kg x 9.8 m/s2 x 1 m = 225 Nm Conclusion: Gyroscopic forces do not allow a substantial amount of the weight to be felt at the wrist (?)

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 28 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 If Total System Weight is Conserved, Suggests (2) Conclusion: How does total system weight include gyroscope weight if it is not felt at the wrist? Also, consider that Laithwaite is doing a “back hand” with 50 lbs. Is Total System Weight is 50 lb (23 kg) + Laithwaite’s weight ? Is the wrist capable of ? 50 lb (23 kg) weight Weight is 50 lb (23 kg) back hand motion

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 29 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Laithwaite – Big Wheel Properties Laithwaite Demonstration: Note that, the wheel design, is not solid but it has a substantial mass in the non-rim rotating plane. Also, note that the transparency (bottom picture) suggest a rotation greater than 3,000 rpm. My Conclusion: I estimate that the non-rim rotating plane mass is about 20% to 30% of the mass of the whole wheel or about 10 to 17 lbs.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 30 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 NASA Experiment* NASA Experiment: 1.Used a bicycle wheel 6 – 10 inches in diameter. 2.Rotation was achieved by hand. Inferred NASA Experiment Parameters: 1.Wheel diameter about 8 inches (20cm). 2.Rotation about 60 rpm. 3.Wheel properties: 1.Hollow plane of rotation. 2.Mass essentially at rim. 3.Estimated non-rim rotating plane mass is less than 2%, of the wheel. * Conservation with Marc Millis of NASA Glen on 06/22/2005 Picture courtesy of How Stuff Works, http://science.howstuffworks.com/gyroscope1.htm http://science.howstuffworks.com/gyroscope1.htm

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 31 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Demonstration of Gyroscopes http://science.howstuffworks.com/gyroscope1.htm Comments: This video is an example of the experiment NASA conducted. Note that the period of precession is about 14s or equivalent to 4.3 rpm.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 32 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Analysis of How-Stuff-Works Video Estimated ParametersHow Stuff Works Video Deconstruction Lever Arm Length, l 0.020m Wheel Radius, r 0.660m26inches Wheel Spin, w 5.000Hz300rpm Gravitational Acceleration, g 9.810m/s 2 Mass of Wheel, m 2.273kg5lb Moment of Inertia of Wheel, I 0.991 Angular Momentum, L 4.956 Theoretical Results Precession Frequency, wp 0.090Hz5.40rpm Observed Results Duration of 1/2 cycle7s Precession Frequency, wp 0.071Hz 4.29rpm My Conclusion: Theoretical results match observed results quite well. The mathematical relationships for precession, are correct.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 33 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Comparisons Between Laithwaite & NASA Experiments Inferences: 1.There are substantial differences between Prof. Laithwaite’s demonstration and NASA’s experiment. 2.The theoretical results differ significantly from observed values.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 34 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Estimation Error Sensitivity Not Significant 0.0 Ratio of Spin Disc Radius to Rotating Lever Arm Rotating Precession Frequency (Hz) 0.0 1.6 0.8 0.4 1.2 5500 500RPM 2.78 Hz ≤ ω precession ≤ 9.68 Hz Theoretical Sensitivity Ranges: 1. 1.5m ≤ Lever Arm Length ≤ 2.5m 2. 0.26m ≤ Gyro Radius ≤ 0.34m 3. 4,500 rpm ≤ Gyro Spin ≤ 5,500 rpm 167 rpm ≤ ω precession ≤ 580 rpm Big Wheel ω precession ≈ 7 rpm

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 35 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Estimation Error Inference One concludes that: the phenomenon Laithwaite was demonstrating was not gyroscopic precession, because the practical results do not match theoretical results by two orders of magnitude.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 36 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 The Key Questions: What is the Total System Weight? When? Spin Torque = Gravity Precession Can we, in a scientifically robust manner, answer two questions: What is the Net Weight of the Gyroscope? And When?

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 37 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 What did Laithwaite demonstrate? Section Objective: To review what Laithwaite had presented.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 38 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Different Phenomena 1.Big Wheel Demonstration: The Laithwaite Effect Under one set of conditions a spinning disc will lose weight, independently of its orientation with the Earth’s gravitational field. 2.Small Wheel Demonstration: The Jones Effect 1 Under another set of conditions spinning discs will provide directional motion that is dependent upon the gyroscopic orientation of the device. Hypothesis: Laithwaite demonstrated 2 different phenomena, weight loss and directional motion. 1. Alex Jones was the first to demonstrate this effect. Source: BBC’s ‘Heretic”.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 39 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Precession versus Rotation Is this big wheel PRECESSING or ROTATING?

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 40 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Not Precession Spin Torque = Gravity Precession Spin Torque = Gravity Precession 1.The analysis of the Big Wheel demonstration, shows that precession due to gravity is perpendicular to the gravitational field. Weight loss requires the equivalent of a vertical upward force.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 41 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Precession versus Rotation 1.I believe that there is a key difference in the demonstrated behavior. The natural frequency of the precessing Big Wheel should be 157 rpm, clockwise. However, Laithwaite is rotating the Big Wheel at about 7 rpm. The Big Wheel is rotating, not precessing. Spin Torque = Gravity Precession is clockwise (from above) ≈ Precession occurs when lever arm length is < wheel radius (?) Pivot Spin Torque = Gravity Rotation is also clockwise (from above) ≈ Rotation occurs when lever arm length is > wheel radius (?) Pivot

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 42 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Gyroscopic Precession Forces 1.Precession causes the net forces acting on the wheel to be bidirectional with respect to the pivot. They change direction from towards the pivot to away from the pivot. Precessing net forces acting on the wheel change sign/direction. Pivot Point Precession TOP VIEW Net Force Spin Torque = Gravity Precession ≈ Precession occurs when net forces change direction across plane of rotation SIDE VIEW Net Force Pivot Point

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 43 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Centripetal Forces 1.Rotation causes the net forces acting on the disc to be centripetal towards the pivot. Rotating net forces acting on the wheel are centripetal. Pivot Point Rotation TOP VIEW Net Force Spin Torque = Gravity Rotation ≈ Rotation occurs when net forces are centripetal across plane of rotation SIDE VIEW Net Force Pivot Point

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 44 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 The Four Laithwaite Rules: Rule 1 Rule 1: A rotating gyroscope does not exhibit lateral forces in the plane of rotation

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 45 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 The Four Laithwaite Rules: Rule 2 Rule 2: A rotating gyroscope does not exhibit centrifugal forces in the plane of rotation

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 46 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 The Four Laithwaite Rules: Rule 3 Rule 3: A rotating gyroscope will not exhibit angular momentum in the plane of rotation

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 47 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 The Four Laithwaite Rules: Rule 4 Rule 4: A rotating gyroscope will lose weight

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 48 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Solomon-Laithwaite Experiments Section Objective: To present the experiments and results obtained to date.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 49 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Experimental Set-Up Spin Torque = Gravity Rotation Massive Steel Table Steel Bars to Secure Lower Stand to Table Lower Stand (Steel Tube) Supports Upper Stand Upper Stand Houses Bearings to Enable Free Rotational Movement Ball Bearing Tube of Upper Stand Weight Scale (up to 400 lbs) Measures Total System Weight Flywheel (55lbs)

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 50 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Some Things to Note 1.The rotation is in the opposite sense of what precession allows. 2.Rotation is at most 10 rpm (revs) << than precession. 3.Weight measurement is of Total System Weight. 4.Weight of spinning flywheel is the same as stationary wheel when not rotating. 5.No nutation (wobble within a wobble) is allowed. 6.Weight loss not due to inertia. 7.Weight “crashes” back and exceeds when rotation slows down to zero.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 51 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 1 st Flywheel Test

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 52 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 1 st Demonstration of Weight Loss

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 53 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 2 nd Demonstration of Weight Loss

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 54 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Static Measurement

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 55 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Dynamic Measurements

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 56 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Apparent Behavior: Total System Weight versus Rotation Rotation Weight >7 revs Weight Loss Behavior Increasing Field Strength 110 lb 135 lb Collapsing Field ≡ Falling 56 lb Weight Gain Behavior Spin > 1000 rpm < 7 revs 10 revs <7 revs

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 57 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Conclusion 1.Able to reproduce Laithwaite’s results, under stricter conditions. 2.Gyroscopic precession not the cause of weight loss. 3.There are boundary conditions / threshold values, before weight loss is observed.

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 58 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Next Steps 1.Determine the boundary conditions / threshold values. 2.The theoretical formulation and relationships within the spin-rotate centripetal force field. 3.Determine whether the weight loss effect is a buoyancy or a propulsion effect. 4.Was the work of other researchers dependent upon gyroscopic field effects? 1.How much of Podkletnov & Nieminen (1992) results (5,000 rpm) are due to gyroscopic spin? 2.Was Hayasaka & Takeuchi (1989, up to 13,000 rpm) work on one side of boundary conditions while Luo, Nie, Zhang, & Zhou (2002) on the other side of these conditions, thus producing conflicting results?

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 59 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Bibliography P.F. Browne (1977), Relativity of Rotation, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen., Vol. 10, N0. 5, 1977 Gibilisco, Stan (1983), Understanding Einstein’s Theories of Relativity, Dover Publications, ISBN 0- 486-26659-1. H. Hayasaka and S. Takeuchi (1989), Anomalous Weight Reduction on a Gyroscope’s Right Rotations around the Vertical Axis on the Earth, Physical Review Letters, December 1989, Vol. 63, No 25, pages 2701-2704. Kline, Morris (1977), Calculus, An Intuitive and Physical Approach, Dover Publications, ISBN 0- 486-40453-6. J. Luo, Y. X. Nie, Y. Z. Zhang, and Z. B. Zhou1 (2002), Null result for violation of the equivalence principle with free-fall rotating gyroscopes, Phys. Rev. D 65, 042005 (2002). E. Podkletnov and R. Nieminen (1992), A Possibility of Gravitational Force Shielding by Bulk YBa2Cu3O7-V Superconductor, Physica C 203 (1992) pages 441-444. Schutz, Bernard (2003), Gravity from the ground up, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521- 45506-5. Solomon, Ben (2001), An Epiphany on Gravity, Journal of Theoretics, December 3, 2001, Vol. 3-6. (http://www.iseti.us/).http://www.iseti.us/ Nicholas Thomas (2002), Common Errors, NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project, August 9, 2002, http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/bpp/ComnErr.html#GYROSCOPIC%20ANTIGRAVITYhttp://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/bpp/ComnErr.html#GYROSCOPIC%20ANTIGRAVITY

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 60 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Acknowledgements Mars Society – forum/platform. Mike Darschewski, formerly of GMACCH Capital Corp – mathematics. Bob Schlitter, Timberline Iron Works, fabrication. Ray & Seth, A&E Cycle; Cliff, Legend Motorcycles; Mark, B&B Sportcycles; Risk, Steele’s Motorcycle; Doug, Doug’s Balancing – power transmission. Pat & Chad, Colorado Scale Center - weight scales. Mark, Joy Controls – measurement instruments. David Solomon - videographer

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13 August 2005 Ben Solomon The 8th International Mars Society Conference 2005 Does the Laithwaite Gyroscopic Weight Loss have Propulsion Potential? Page 61 of 61 iSETI LLC, PO Box 831, Evergreen, CO 80437 Contact Ben Solomon iSETI LLC P.O. Box 831 Evergreen, CO 80437 Email: solomon@iseti.ussolomon@iseti.us Tel: 303-949-7930

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