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Final Exam Review Part B. What is Chargaff’s rule? A. amounts of A=T and C=G B. amounts of A=C and G=T C. amounts of A=G and C=T D. amounts of A, T, C,

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Presentation on theme: "Final Exam Review Part B. What is Chargaff’s rule? A. amounts of A=T and C=G B. amounts of A=C and G=T C. amounts of A=G and C=T D. amounts of A, T, C,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Final Exam Review Part B

2 What is Chargaff’s rule? A. amounts of A=T and C=G B. amounts of A=C and G=T C. amounts of A=G and C=T D. amounts of A, T, C, and G are equal ANSWER: A

3 What amino acids do these form? AUG CCG UAC CCC UAG Methionine - proline - tyrosine - proline- STOP

4 Where is the sugar? The phosphate? The nitrogenous bases?

5 Phosphate Sugar Nitrogenous base

6 What do you call the 3 bases of: DNA - mRNA - tRNA ANSWER: triplet - codon - anticodon

7 Identify the parts of protein synthesis:

8 ANSWERS Transcription = DNA –mRNA (in nucleus) Translation= mRNA –tRNA (at ribosome)

9 What is the mutation? ORIGINAL DNA: AAA AUG CCC CUA MUTATION: AAA GUA CCC CUA A. insertion B. deletion C. translocation (between 2 diff. chrom.) D. inversion (flipped on one chrom.) ANSWER: inversion

10 Which mutations will be inherited? A. from both somatic and sex cells B. from only sex cells C. from only somatic cells ANSWER: B

11 What do you call the circular DNA in bacteria? A. rRNA B. chloroplast C. nucleolus D. plasmid ANSWER: D

12 If you place recombinant DNA into an organism, it is called: A, genomic B. eugenic C. transgender D. Transgenic ANSWER: D

13 What are the single-stranded parts of a plasmid called? STICKY ENDS

14 What is this?

15 Recombinant DNA = inserted DNA from a different organism + plasmid What is this?

16 What would be the DNA bases to join these single strands? A T T C C G T A A G G C G C T A ANSWER: A T T C C G C G A T T A A G G C G C T A

17 Which mutations will be inherited? A. those from the sex cells of the parents B. those from the skin cells of the parents C. those from any cell of the parents D. those only from the mother ANSWER: A

18 What do you call this rabbit? Alba has a gene called luciferase in it from a firefly. It is now… A. translucent B. transgenic C. genomic D. eugenic ANSWER: B

19 What process separates DNA according to size and charge? A. PCR B. gel electrophoresis C. cloning D. probing ANSWER: gel electrophoresis

20 What is the definition of evolution? A. change in frequency of alleles over time B. process in which an organism becomes extinct C. reproductive isolation of members of certain species D. replacement of one community by another ANSWER: A

21 Scientific age of the Earth A. 60,000 years old B. 4.5 million years old C. 4.5 billion years old ANSWER: C Also: Age of living things 3.5 billion years

22 Define homologous structures: A. same structures, same functions, same origins B. same structures, different functions, same origins C. different structures, same functions, same origins D. different structures, same functions, different origins ANSWER: B

23 Inherited traits that help an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment is called: A. adaptations B. mutations C. petrification D. evolution ANSWER: A

24 If you have a large number of differences of amino acids in a protein found in two different species suggest that: A. they evolved in similar environments B. they are closely related C. they are distantly related to one another D. they are the same species ANSWER: C

25 What are preserved remnants or impressions of the evidence of life? A. chromosomes B. traits C. homologous chromosomes D. fossils ANSWER: D

26 When an allele controlling a trait has HIGH fitness its frequency in the population should: A. decrease B. increase C. remain the same ANSWER: B

27 Which is NOT a condition of the Hardy Weinberg? A. no migration in or out B. equal reproduction of all organisms C. random mating D. high rates of mutation ANSWER: D Also large population and no natural selection

28 When fertile individuals move in or out of a population and reduce genetic differences between these populations is called: A. gene flow B. microevolution C. bottleneck effect D. founder effect ANSWER: A

29 Natural Selection works on an organism’s: A. genotype B. phenotype ANSWER: B

30 In what type of rock would you find fossils? A. igneous B. metamorphic C. sedimentary ANSWER: C

31 Which were most likely the most primitive organisms? A. corals B. bacteria C. fish D. eukaryotes E. Mr. Bethem ANSWER: B or E

32 If A=.7 and a=.3, what is the frequency of the homozygous dominant individuals? A..49 B..09 C..42 D. 1 ANSWER: A AA = p 2 (.7) (.7) Aa = 2pq aa = q 2 p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1 Hardy-Weinberg

33 Which graph is showing directional evolution? A. B. C. ANSWER: A

34 Which graph is showing directional evolution? A. B. C. Directional Disruptive stabilizing White brown black

35 The raw material for evolution comes from… A, natural selection B. gene flow C. mutations D. genetic drift ANSWER: C

36 Which are most closely related? Red algae and green algae Red algae brown algae Diatoms and yeast ANSWER: brown and red algae

37 Which are most related? Rhea and Stuthio Rhea and Pterocnemia ANSWER: Rhea and Pterocnemia

38 Darwin did not know about: A. fossils B. genes C. gene flow D. artificial selection ANSWER: B

39 Which of these (choose 2)would be in the same family? Cat alligator lion manatee ANSWER: cat and lion

40 In what kingdom are all of these? Cat alligator lion manatee ANSWER: animalia

41 Which phylogenetic tree shows the most diversity? A B C ANSWER: C

42 Which species is most closely related to humans? ANSWER: chimpanzees

43 What are same structures, same origin, different function? A. homologous B. analagous ANSWER: homologous

44 What is taxonomy? A. study of molecular biology B. study of anthropology C. study of classification D. geology E. stuffing dead animal carcasses ANSWER: C

45 Which are the primary consumers? ANSWER: Mouse Deer Cricket

46 Where are the producers? ANSWER: D

47 What % of energy is passed to each trophic level above it? A. 10 B. 90 C. 50 ANSWER: 10%

48 Which is where both organisms benefit? A. mutualism B. parasitism C. commensalism D. predation Answer: A

49 Which fossil is the oldest? ANSWER: A

50 Describe forest succession Lichen and moss’ acids break down rock Small plants Shrubs Pines then oaks and maples Primary succ = start with rock Seconday succ.=start with soil

51 Which is an abiotic factor that functions as a limiting factor for the autotrophs in the ecosystem shown A. grasshopper B. fish C. light D. hawk ANSWER: C

52 Which is a population example? A. leopard frogs in a stream B. birds in Colorado C. reptiles in the Sahara Desert D. trees in a forest ANSWER: A (same species, same time, same place)

53 First organism in most food chains: A. herbivore B. decomposer C. carnivore D. photosynthetic ANSWER: D

54 This graph shows: A. logistic growth B. exponential growth C. super duper growth ANSWER: A

55 If the birthrate equals the death rate, the population… A. reaches zero growth B. Gradually increases C. gradually decreases D. becomes unstable ANSWER: A

56 Going from sea level to mountain top, an ecologist saw: Description -Deep-green +many birds+ sm. Animals -bare rock,very little vegetation, few birds Which biome? Temperate deciduous forest tundra

57 Which column contains only abiotic factors? ANSWER: B

58 What category are these? (animals that eat dead organisms) A. decomposers B. scavengers C. herbivores D. autotrophs ANSWER: B

59 Where are the autotrophs? Fish Snails Plants Gravel ANSWER: plants

60 Where is the carrying capacity on the graph? ANSWER: C A B C

61 Predator-Prey Graph What’s going on here? ANSWER: prey density goes down, then predator density goes down

62 Which of the following would be the largest group of organisms? A. community B. population C. species D. ecosystem ANSWER: D

63 Largest to smallest Biosphere – whole earth Biome –lg. area similar temp + organisms Ecosystem – living + non-living Community-many species in a place Population –one species in a place Species – can interbreed and viable offspr. Organism – one individual

64 Which of the following would be decomposers? A. plants B. fungi + bacteria C. animals D. paramecia (protists) ANSWER: B

65 What is the name of Mrs. Sheldon’s iguana? A. Spikey B. Bob C. Killer D. Lazy butt ANSWER: A


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