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Mind and Matter VIII Quantum Physics VI Mind over Matter VI My guiding conviction is that mind is not just an afterthought or an accident or an add-on,

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Presentation on theme: "Mind and Matter VIII Quantum Physics VI Mind over Matter VI My guiding conviction is that mind is not just an afterthought or an accident or an add-on,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Mind and Matter VIII Quantum Physics VI Mind over Matter VI My guiding conviction is that mind is not just an afterthought or an accident or an add-on, but a basic aspect of nature. —Thomas Nagel, Mind and Cosmos (2012)

2 Topics for today Quantum Physics VI – Quantum entanglement (“spooky action at a distance” – EDP (Einstein et al.) Mind over Matter VI – Mesmer, Quimby and Christian Science – Mental operations in the body 2

3 Topics for today Quantum Physics VI – Quantum entanglement (“spooky action at a distance” – EDP (Einstein et al.) Mind over Matter VI – Mesmer, Quimby and Christian Science – Mental operations in the body It is basic for physics that one assumes a real world existing independently from any act of perception— but this we do not know. —Albert Einstein 3

4 Historical high points in quantum physics: The twenties and thirties 1924 – Louis de Broglie – Wave nature of electrons 1926 – Erwin Schrödinger – The wave function 1927 – Werner Heisenberg – Uncertainty principle 1928 – Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg – The Copenhagen Interpretation 1935 – Erwin Shrödinger – Schrödinger’s cat 1935 – Einstein, Podolsky & Rosen – EPR 4

5 Comment on Schrödinger’s cat Schrödinger told his cat story by strictly applying quantum theory to the large as well as the small. His point was to ridicule the theory’s claim that our observation created the reality we experience. That claim does seem crazy. Indeed, if someone on trial convinced the jury that he believed that his looking actually created the physical world, the jury would likely accept a plea of insanity. —Bruce Rosenbaum & Fred Kuttner Quantum Enigma (2011) 5

6 Einstein vs. Bohr A decades-long friendly debate 1927 conference: – Einstein rejects Copenhagen interpretation Insisted that even little things have an independent reality – Apart from observation If quantum theory says otherwise, it must be wrong Presented a thought experiment to demonstrate his point – Bohr defended quantum theory and the Copenhagen interpretation Pointed out a defect in Einstein’s thought experiment 1930 conference – Einstein presented another thought experiment – Again, Bohr found a flaw in the argument – Einstein conceded that quantum theory was at least consistent 1935 – Publication of a now famous paper with two young colleagues, Podorsky and Rosen Argues that quantum theory is incomplete 6

7 EPR (1935) by Einstein and two young colleagues, Podorsky and Rosen Published same year as Schrödinger’s cat Intent was to argue that Quantum Theory couldn’t possibly be realistic in concluding that quantum phenomena don’t exist until/unless observed Bohr was electrified, but responded a few months later Then, not much further attention until after 1965 – Bell’s theorem (1965) looms large 7

8 The basic argument of EPR Quantum theory is not wrong, as far as it goes The actual argument: Quantum theory is incomplete It does not describe the real physical world – It requires an observer-created reality only because it is not the whole story It is possible (after all) to know a property of an object without that object’s being observed – Such a property is therefore not observer-created It is a physical reality Argument based on a thought experiment 8

9 Mode of reasoning of the EPR argument illustrated with railroad cars Two railroad cars with a strong spring between them Cars are decoupled simultaneously They move apart from each other at same speed Observer A (“Alice”) is closer than B (“Bob”) to point of origin Therefore, Alice observes “her” car passing before Bob sees his 9

10 Atoms instead of RR cars Two atoms flying apart in opposite directions Quantum theory says they are wave packets—not particles They do not exist at particular positions until the position is observed Problem: The uncertainty principle forbids knowing both position and velocity Later version (proposed by David Bohm): with photons – To understand the photon version, need to understand polarization of light 10

11 Polarization of light Familiar from sunglasses – They filter out many photons – Each lens filters out about half 11 Photons with varying polarizations Polarizer Detector

12 Filtering polarization of light Consider a photon with polarization at 45 o It will come out of a filter as either horizontal or vertical – 50% - 50% chance 12

13 Twin-state photons (I) Twin photons travelling apart from each other – More relevant to actual quantum phenomena – Each moving at the speed of light (after all, they are photons) Production of twin photons – A super-exited electron – Falls two quantum steps In rapid succession – Emitting two photons – They move in opposite directions 13

14 Twin-state photons (II) Two photons move – apart from each other – in opposite directions – at same speed – the speed of light – They are in a ”twin-state” – They have random polarization, but the same polarization The photons are in a superposition state w.r.t. polarization until they are observed – That is, they don’t have a particular polarization – But they have the same polarization 14

15 Twin-state photons and two observers Observer A closer to point of origin than B Therefore, A observes before B For a pair of twin-state photons.. Whichever way Alice’s comes out, Bob’s will always come out the same way 15

16 The quantum theory argument according to Copenhagen The photons are in a superposition state w.r.t. polarization until they are observed Observers A and B both have polarization filters and detectors Observer A (“Alice”) is closer than B (“Bob”) to point of origin – Thus Alice observes “her” photon before Bob observes his Alice’s observation of her photon determines its polarization And also, instantaneously, that of Bob’s photon 16

17 The EPR argument (I) The photons already had – not only the same polarization – but also a particular polarization Therefore, A’s observation did not influence the polarization of B’s photon 17

18 The EPR argument (II) First, we need a condition for what constitutes reality – The EPR definition: “If without in any way disturbing a system, we can predict with certainly…the value of a physical quantity, then there exists an element of physical reality corresponding to this physical quantity” – Rosenblum & Kuttner’s paraphrase: “If a physical property of an object can be known without its being observed, then that property could not have been created by observation. If such a property were not created by its observation, it must have existed as a physical reality before its observation.” (167) Quantum theory does not contain any physical properties that are real in this sense 18

19 The EPR argument (III) Quantum theory does not contain any physical properties that are real in this sense Therefore, if we can find any property that is real before it is observed, we have shown that quantum theory is incomplete We (i.e., Einstein, Podorsky, and Rosen) claim that the particular polarization of B’s photon was already there before it was observed 19

20 Schrödinger and entanglement After publication of EPR, Schrödinger wrote a letter to Einstein, expressing agreement In the letter (written in German) he used the term verschränkung, which was later translated into English as entanglement Refers to two particles that interact and then separate They constitute a single two-particle system Any changes to one of them would affect the other Despite the distance between them Despite the speed at which they are moving apart Even if it is the speed of light 20

21 Bohr’s response Bohr disagreed with EPR Expressed his disagreement in another paper with same title Argued that Bob’s photon acquired its polarization instananeously when Alice observed hers In that case EPR’s condition for reality is violated Most went along with Bohr (the Copenhagen interpretation) – Copenhagen interpretation: Don’t worry about the philosophical issues The equations make correct predictions They lead to successful applications Bohr later defended his position by redefining the goal of science: – The goal is not to explain Nature, but to describe what we can say about Nature 21

22 From 1935 to Einstein rejected Bohr’s response – Said that a photon displays a particular polarization because it already has that polarization – Derided Bohr’s remote “influences” as “voodoo forces” and “spooky actions” – “The Lord God is subtle, but malicious he is not” EPR wasn’t considered very important until : Bell’s Theorem John Stewart Bell 22

23 Topics for today Quantum Physics VI – Quantum entanglement (“spooky action at a distance” – EDP (Einstein et al.) Mind over Matter VI – Mesmer, Quimby, and Christian Science – Mental operations in the body 23

24 Quote from Mark Twain 24 No one doubts—certainly not I—that the mind exercises a powerful influence over the body. From the beginning of time, the sorcerer, the interpreter of dreams, the fortune- teller, the charlatan, the quack, the wild medicine-man, the educated physician, the mesmerist, and the hypnotist have made use of the client's imagination to help them in their work. They have all recognized the potency and availability of that force. Physicians cure many patients with a bread pill; they know that where the disease is only a fancy, the patient's confidence in the doctor will make the bread pill effective. —Mark Twain Christian Science (1903)

25 Franz Anton Mesmer ( ) Born in Germany After study in German universities, studied medicine at U of Vienna Dissertation, on tidal effects in human body, was heavily influenced by writings of Richard Meade, an English physician and friend of Isaac Newton Took up practice of medicine in Vienna Developed theory of animal magnetism 25

26 Mesmer and Mozart Mesmer married a wealthy widow (1766) – Had a “splendid estate” – Became a patron of the arts In 1768, arranged for a performance of an opera at the estate – composed by Mozart at age 12 – 500 pages of music Later, a blind pianist was referred by Mozart to Mesmer – Maria Teresa Paradis, age 18 – Protegé of Empress Maria Teresa – Blind since age 4 – Mesmer cured her blindness using “mesmerism” 26

27 Mesmer and Lafayette Mesmer moved his practice to Paris Trained a group of followers in use of mesmerism – One of them was Lafayette – Wrote to George Washington (vi U) 27

28 Mesmer and Franklin Other physicians in Paris denounced Mesmer as a quack A royal commission was appointed to investigate – One of the members was Benjamin Franklin Then an envoy to France The commission’s verdict: – Mesmer’s cures were all based on imagination Dissenting opinion: (vii l) 28

29 Connected lives | | | | | | | | | ___________________________ Newton ____________________________ Franklin _____________________ Maria Teresa ____________________ Washington __________________________ Mesmer _____________ Mozart ___________________________ Lafayette | | | | | | | | |

30 Mesmerism in historical context A similar practice existed in ancient Greece (?) – At temples of Asculapius – “Sleepers” visited in their sleep by the god – Cures followed Magnetism was not understood in Mesmer’s time – People knew about lodestones and magnetic meteorites Mesmer started by using magnetic objects like lodestones with curative effects Later found that similar cures could be achieved using pieces of wood or glass Then decided that the “magnetism” was coming from him – – “Animal magnetism” Later termed ‘hypnosis’ by a Scottish physician, Dr. Braid 30

31 Phineas Parkhurst Quimby ( ) A clockmaker in Belfast, Maine Attended demonstrations by one of Mesmer’s students Decided to become a mesmerist himself Soon he was being called upon by physicians and surgeons to anesthetize patients during surgery One of his subjects, Lucius Burckmar, age 19 – Able to diagnose patients while hypnotized – Some physicians called upon Quimby and Burckmar for diagnostic help Later, Quimby acquired this diagnostic ability himself – And stopped using hypnotism 31

32 Reports of Quimby’s work See Dresser, The Quimby Manuscripts 107T 86U 89U 90T 32 Quimby on the origin of disease 321UL

33 Quimby’s method MY THEORY: the trouble is in the mind, for the body is only the house for the mind to dwell in... If your mind has been deceived by some invisible enemy into a belief, you have put it into the form of a disease, with or without your knowledge. By my theory or truth I come in contact with your enemy and restore you to health and happiness. —volume 3, page 208 of Quimby's Complete Writings 105Bf 307Lf 33

34 Quimby quotes “…all medical remedies affect the body only through the mind” “To every disease there is an odor [mental atmosphere]” “What we believe, that we create.” “The trouble is in the mind, for the body is only the house for the mind to dwell in” “Diseases are like fashions, and people are as apt to take a new disease as they are to fall in with any new fashion.” “…the body is to the soul as the steam engine is to the engineer—a medium without knowledge or power, only as it is given by something independent of itself.” “…the life is in the spiritual body, which being ignorant of itself places its own identity in the flesh and blood.” “…the body is to the [mind] what the banks of the river are to the water: an identity to signify that water can be condensed into a form.” “The explanation of the disease is its cure.” 34

35 P. P. Quimby and Mary Baker Eddy 35 -Mary Baker, born 1821 in New Hampshire -Childhood and much of her adult life spent in ill health -Married George Washington Glover in He died in Married Daniel Patterson in Tried various cures for continuing illness -None worked -By 1862 she was a virtual invalid -Went to Dr. Quimby -Her health was immediately restored -She became a student of Dr. Quimby -Read and borrowed his writings -And made copies -Wrote articles and poetry praising him -And gave lectures -on “Quimby’s Spiritual Science…” -Patterson left her in Quimby died same year

36 Mary Baker Eddy (cont’d) By 1875, stopped giving credit to Quimby – Published a book Science and Health (1975), which claimed – “In the year 1866, I discovered the Christ Science or divine laws of Life, Truth, and Love, and named my discovery Christian Science" Married Asa Eddy in 1877 – Had been healed by her and became a student – He died in n 1879, chartered the Church of Christ, Scientist After dissensions, she restructured the organization First Church of Christ, Scientist established in 1892 – The “Mother Church” Began publishing the Christian Science Monitor in 1908 Died in

37 Organizations stemming from Quimby’s work Christian Science The New Thought movement – Divine Science (estabished 1889) – Unity Church (established 1888) – Religious Science (established 1927) – Other smaller groups (including Jewish Science) Other intellectual influences of the new thought movement – Warren F. Evans (a Swedenborgian minister) – Ralph Waldo Emerson ( ) – George Berkeley ( ) – The four Gospels – Hinduism E.g., the teachings of Vivekananda 37

38 38 T h a t ‘s i t f o r t o d a y !


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