Presentation on theme: "Islamic Faith Arabia Before Muhammad. Setting the Stage The cultures of the Arabian peninsula were in constant contact with each other. The Middle East."— Presentation transcript:
Islamic Faith Arabia Before Muhammad
Setting the Stage The cultures of the Arabian peninsula were in constant contact with each other. The Middle East served as a bridge between Africa, Asia, & Europe. Goods & new ideas were often traded, such as religion.
The Islamic World The Arabian Peninsula was a peripheral desert wasteland whose once great cities had fallen on hard times. Its sparse population consisted of nomadic peoples called beoudins. It is here that the Islamic faith can trace its origins to.
Makkah Important trade stop and religious center of Arabia People settled there because of the fresh water well It is the current location of Kaaba shrine with 300 religious idols) Population was very diverse: Arabs, Christians, Jews, etc.
Arabs Arab (abhar= to move or pass) Majority of Arabia’s first inhabitants were Bedouins (nomadic arabs) Origins: Africa or Mesopotamia? Valued camels and swords above all else Had no strong central government Practiced animalistic polytheism (many gods)
Quraysh Powerful local tribe of Arabs Encouraged tribes to deposit idols in the Kaaba and protected them for a fee.
A Leader Emerges Angel Gabriel visited Muhammad and told him to “Recite in the name of the Lord!”Angel Gabriel visited Muhammad and told him to “Recite in the name of the Lord!” Mohammed was convinced that he was chosen to spread a monotheistic religion to the Arab people and reject all tribal gods.Mohammed was convinced that he was chosen to spread a monotheistic religion to the Arab people and reject all tribal gods. Muhammad became a Muslim, “one who submits to the will of God.”Muhammad became a Muslim, “one who submits to the will of God.” He spread the new religion of Islam, which united people and provided a sense of purpose.He spread the new religion of Islam, which united people and provided a sense of purpose.
Muhammad’s Early Life Born into Hashim family of the powerful Qurasyh tribe between 570 and 580 C.E. Angels told mother, Amina, to name the child Muhammad (highly praised) Father, Abdallah, died before Muhammad’s birth, Mother, died when he was six. He was raised by his uncle, Abu Talib
Muhammad cont’d As a young man, he worked for a wealthy widow, Khadija Married Khadija; had 7 children (only 1 daughter—Fatima—survived) Had a reputation as a seeker of solitude
The Divine Revelations Later to become known as the Five Pillars of Islam 1.Faith : “There is no God but Allah, and Mohammed is his Prophet.” 2.Prayer: Five times a day facing Mecca 3.Alms: Give money to the poor 4.Fast: no eating from sun up to sun down during the month of Ramadan 5.Pilgrimage: All Muslims must journey to Mecca for those financially and physically able.
Muhammad’s Teachings Major Points of Muhammad’s public teachings: 1.There was only one God (Allah) and all should submit to him. 2.All believers in God were equal 3.The rich should share with the poor. 4.People should live righteously 5.All people would be subjected to a Judgment Day
Angry Makkans Muhammad’s preaching angered many of the people of Makkah He wanted to abolish idolatry, yet most Makkans did not want to give up their idols Critical of wealthy merchants who controlled most of the money and power in Makkah
Protection for the Prophet He was able to remain in Makkah because of his powerful and respected family
Muhammad’s Welcome Prophet was welcomed by Jews and Arabs of Yathrib Both groups hoped Muhammad could prevent a civil war from breaking out Renamed Yathrib Madinaht unNabit, which means “City of the Prophet” Believers in Islam began to call themselves Muslims “those who submit to God’s will.”
Hijrah Muhammad decided to leave Makkah after death of Khadija and Abu Talib Traveled to oasis city of Yathrib This journey (hijrah) marks the beginning of Islam and Muslim calendar
Conflict in Medina (Madinah) Muhammad hoped Islam could win new converts Some Jewish leaders did not accept Muhammad as God’s latest prophet Jews who opposed Muhammad were expelled from Madinah At first, Muhammad told Muslims to pray in the direction of Jerusalem, but later changed it to the Kaaba in Makkah
Postcard Collection: Islamic Empire Our focus will now turn towards the last of the 3 monotheistic religions established in Ancient History. You are going to create a series of postcards based on the Islamic Faith, using Chapter 10, sections 1 & 2. Each card must have between facts that you will find in the textbook. You will also need to have a draw a graphic representation of what you researched. The picture must be in color. Postcard #1: Spread of the Islamic Faith (pgs ) Caliphs Success Treatment of Others Postcard #2: The Islamic Faith (pgs. 271) Sunni-Shi’ a Split