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UNIT 9 The Civil War. Popular Sovereignty The idea that political authority belongs to the people.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 9 The Civil War. Popular Sovereignty The idea that political authority belongs to the people."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT 9 The Civil War

2 Popular Sovereignty The idea that political authority belongs to the people

3 Fugitive Slave Act A law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves. It allowed for their arrest in free states and territories.

4 Compromise of 1850 Compromise offered by Henry Clay which allowed a Free California in exchange for popular Sovereignty for the Utah and New Mexico Territories.

5 Emancipation Proclamation A presidential order by Abraham Lincoln freeing slaves in areas rebelling against the Union.

6 Confederate States of America The nation formed by southern states after they seceded from the Union.

7 Secede The act of formally leaving the Union.

8 Kansas-Nebraska Act A law that allowed voters in Kansas and Nebraska Territories to chose whether they wanted to allow slavery.

9 Fort Sumter Federal Fort in Charleston Harbor which was the first battle in the Civil War.

10 Border States Slave states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Mississippi which did not join the Confederacy.

11 Lincoln-Douglas Debates A series of Illinois Senatorial debates between Steven Douglas and Abraham Lincoln that are recognized as a preview of the Presidential election of 1860.

12 First Battle of Bull Run First major battle of the Civil War – A Confederate Victory. It showed that the Northern victory would not be easy.

13 Battle of Antietam Union Victory that marked the bloodiest day in US History.

14 Battle of Shiloh Union Victory that secured control of the Mississippi River.

15 Battle of Gettysburg Union Victory that turned the tide of the Civil War against the Confederates.

16 Gettysburg Address A speech given by President Lincoln in which he praised Union soldiers and renewed his commitment to winning the war.

17 Appomattox Courthouse Virginia town where General Robert E. Lee surrendered the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia to the Union Army of General Ulysses S. Grant thus ending the Civil War.

18 Video DmE Ken Burns Causes of the Civil War 3.5 min DmE Grs History at a glance 12 min Grs

19 Unit Learning Goal The Civil War resulted from major social, political, and economic differences between North and South

20 Target A Explain the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War.

21 Lesson Learning Goal You will understand how the Missouri Compromise, Compromise oif 1850, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act created compromise and tension over the issue of slavery in the expanding United States.

22 Scales – How are you doing? 4 – I can explain the differences between the slavery compromises that led to the Civil War and give 3 examples from the point of view of the North and South. 3 –I can identify the differences between the slavery compromises that led to the Civil War and give 2 examples from the point of view of the North and South.

23 Scales – How are you doing? 2 –I can list the differences between the slavery compromises that led to the Civil War and give an example from the point of view of the North and South. 1 – With help, I can identify the slavery compromises that led to the Civil War

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25 Missouri Compromise Outlawed slavery in all states and territories north of the 36* 30’ latitude Problem – when the Mexican American War ended, what do you do with that new land?

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27 Compromise of 1850 California entered the Union as a free state while the rest of the Mexican Cession territory was divided into the Utah and New Mexico Territories where the question of slavery was to be decided by popular sovereignty (the people). Problem – What to do about the growing number of runaway slaves?

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29 Fugitive Slave Law Crime to help a runaway slave. Slaves can be arrested in all free states and territories. Problem, what happens to new territories?

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31 Kansas-Nebraska Act Eliminates the latitude restriction of the Missouri Compromise Popular Sovereignty decides slavery in the territories

32 Scales – How are you doing? 4 – I can explain the differences between the slavery compromises that led to the Civil War and give 3 examples from the point of view of the North and South. 3 –I can identify the differences between the slavery compromises that led to the Civil War and give 2 examples from the point of view of the North and South.

33 Scales – How are you doing? 2 –I can list the differences between the slavery compromises that led to the Civil War and give an example from the point of view of the North and South. 1 – With help, I can identify the slavery compromises that led to the Civil War

34 Bleeding Kansas

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36 Bleeding Kansas Pro-slavery settlers invade from Missouri Anti-slavery settlers invade from New England- Emigrant Aid Company

37 Bleeding Kansas Pro-slavery settlers invade from Missouri Anti-slavery settlers invade from New England- Emigrant Aid Company Rival constitutions and governments

38 Bleeding Kansas Pro-slavery settlers invade from Missouri Anti-slavery settlers invade from New England- Emigrant Aid Company Rival constitutions and governments Federal Government could not resolve

39 Charles Sumner “The murderous robbers from Missouri are hirelings, picked from the drunken spew and vomit of an uneasy civilization." "Senator Butler has chosen a mistress. I mean the harlot, slavery."

40 Senator Charles Sumner R- Massachusetts Criticized the Kansas Pro-slavery government Insulted Andrew Butler, a pro-slavery Senator from South Carolina Representative Preston Brooks, cousin of Butler, attacked Sumner with a cane on the Senate floor

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42 Free Soil Party Opposed expansion of slavery into the western territories Party lasted from Election of 1848 Martin Van Buren (ex-President) nominated for President

43 Republican Party Established in Ripon, Wisconsin Anti-slavery platform Consolidated anti-slavery Democrats, Free-Soilers & Whigs Elephant created by cartoonist Thomas Nast, a staunch Republican. Chosen because of its size and strength

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45 Dred Scott

46 Slave of Dr. John Emerson from St. Louis

47 Dred Scott Slave of Dr. John Emerson from St. Louis Taken to Illinois in 1836 and Wisconsin in 1838 – both free states

48 Dred Scott Slave of Dr. John Emerson from St. Louis Taken to Illinois in 1836 and Wisconsin in 1838 – both free states Allowed to marry Harriet Robinson while in Wisconsin

49 Dred Scott Slave of Dr. John Emerson from St. Louis Taken to Illinois in 1836 and Wisconsin in 1838 – both free states Allowed to marry Harriet Robinson while in Wisconsin Could have sued for his freedom while in Illinois or Wisconsin because he was in free territory

50 Dred Scott Slave of Dr. John Emerson from St. Louis Taken to Illinois in 1836 and Wisconsin in 1838 – both free states Allowed to marry Harriet Robinson while in Wisconsin Could have sued for his freedom while in Illinois or Wisconsin because he was in free territory Dr. Emerson (an army surgeon) returned to Missouri

51 Dred Scott Slave of Dr. John Emerson from St. Louis Taken to Illinois in 1836 and Wisconsin in 1838 – both free states Allowed to marry Harriet Robinson while in Wisconsin Could have sued for his freedom while in Illinois or Wisconsin because he was in free territory Dr. Emerson (an army surgeon) returned to Missouri Scott and his wife remained in Wisconsin

52 Dred Scott Slave of Dr. John Emerson from St. Louis Taken to Illinois in 1836 and Wisconsin in 1838 – both free states Allowed to marry Harriet Robinson while in Wisconsin Could have sued for his freedom while in Illinois or Wisconsin because he was in free territory Dr. Emerson (an army surgeon) returned to Missouri Scott and his wife remained in Wisconsin Emerson sent for Scott in Scott traveled to join his master in 1842 (why wouldn’t he, Emerson always treated him well)

53 Dred Scott Slave of Dr. John Emerson from St. Louis Taken to Illinois in 1836 and Wisconsin in 1838 – both free states Allowed to marry Harriet Robinson while in Wisconsin Could have sued for his freedom while in Illinois or Wisconsin because he was in free territory Dr. Emerson (an army surgeon) returned to Missouri Scott and his wife remained in Wisconsin Emerson sent for Scott in Scott traveled to join his master in 1842 (why wouldn’t he, Emerson always treated him well) After Emerson’s death in 1843, Scott offered to purchase freedom for himself and his wife from Emerson’s widow who refused so Scott sued for his freedom

54 Dred Scott Slave of Dr. John Emerson from St. Louis Taken to Illinois in 1836 and Wisconsin in 1838 – both free states Allowed to marry Harriet Robinson while in Wisconsin Could have sued for his freedom while in Illinois or Wisconsin because he was in free territory Dr. Emerson (an army surgeon) returned to Missouri Scott and his wife remained in Wisconsin Emerson sent for Scott in Scott traveled to join his master in 1842 (why wouldn’t he, Emerson always treated him well) After Emerson’s death in 1843, Scott offered to purchase freedom for himself and his wife from Emerson’s widow who refused so Scott sued for his freedom Supreme Court decision: Black people were not citizens of the United states of America, therefore had no legal standing in US courts

55 Dred Scott Slave of Dr. John Emerson from St. Louis Taken to Illinois in 1836 and Wisconsin in 1838 – both free states Allowed to marry Harriet Robinson while in Wisconsin Could have sued for his freedom while in Illinois or Wisconsin because he was in free territory Dr. Emerson (an army surgeon) returned to Missouri Scott and his wife remained in Wisconsin Emerson sent for Scott in Scott traveled to join his master in 1842 (why wouldn’t he, Emerson always treated him well) After Emerson’s death in 1843, Scott offered to purchase freedom for himself and his wife from Emerson’s widow who refused so Scott sued for his freedom Supreme Court decision: Black people were not citizens of the United states of America, therefore had no legal standing in US courts Eventually Emerson’s widow remarried an outspoken abolitionist who forced her to allow him to purchase his freedom. The money came strangely enough from the family of Scott’s original owner and his childhood friend.

56 Dred Scott Slave of Dr. John Emerson from St. Louis Taken to Illinois in 1836 and Wisconsin in 1838 – both free states Allowed to marry Harriet Robinson while in Wisconsin Could have sued for his freedom while in Illinois or Wisconsin because he was in free territory Dr. Emerson (an army surgeon) returned to Missouri Scott and his wife remained in Wisconsin Emerson sent for Scott in Scott traveled to join his master in 1842 (why wouldn’t he, Emerson always treated him well) After Emerson’s death in 1843, Scott offered to purchase freedom for himself and his wife from Emerson’s widow who refused so Scott sued for his freedom Supreme Court decision: Black people were not citizens of the United states of America, therefore had no legal standing in US courts Eventually Emerson’s widow remarried an outspoken abolitionist who forced her to allow him to purchase his freedom. The money came strangely enough from the family of Scott’s original owner and his childhood friend. Scott lived a free man for 6 months before he died.

57 The Lincoln / Douglas Debates

58 U.S. Senate race for the state for Illinois

59 The Lincoln / Douglas Debates U.S. Senate race for the state for Illinois Senators were chosen in 1858 by state legislators so the general public had no say in their election Series of seven very well-publicized debates throughout Illinois

60 The Lincoln / Douglas Debates U.S. Senate race for the state for Illinois Senators were chosen in 1858 by state legislators so the general public had no say in their election Series of seven very well-publicized debates throughout Illinois Incumbent - Senator Stephen Douglas Challenger - Abraham Lincoln

61 The Lincoln / Douglas Debates U.S. Senate race for the state for Illinois Senators were chosen in 1858 by state legislators so the general public had no say in their election Series of seven very well-publicized debates throughout Illinois Incumbent - Senator Stephen Douglas Challenger - Abraham Lincoln Lincoln claimed the Democrats were attempting to spread slavery

62 The Lincoln / Douglas Debates U.S. Senate race for the state for Illinois Senators were chosen in 1858 by state legislators so the general public had no say in their election Series of seven very well-publicized debates throughout Illinois Incumbent - Senator Stephen Douglas Challenger - Abraham Lincoln Lincoln claimed the Democrats were attempting to spread slavery Douglas claimed that the Republicans were trying to end slavery

63 The Lincoln / Douglas Debates U.S. Senate race for the state for Illinois Senators were chosen in 1858 by state legislators so the general public had no say in their election Series of seven very well-publicized debates throughout Illinois Incumbent - Senator Stephen Douglas Challenger - Abraham Lincoln Lincoln claimed the Democrats were attempting to spread slavery Douglas claimed that the Republicans were trying to end slavery Douglas won the election, but Lincoln was introduced to the nation in a visible and well-reported series of debates. The Lincoln/ Douglas debates were seen as a preview of the Election of 1860

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65 Northern Democratic Party

66 RepublicanParty

67 Southern Democratic Party

68 Constitutional Union Party

69 Their Platforms

70 Dividing the Map

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75 The southern states voluntarily joined the Union by holding a Constitutional Convention and ratified the Constitution, therefore they reasoned the could leave by the same process John Crittenden of Kentucky proposed a Constitutional Amendment which would protect the institution of slavery in hopes of averting secession – All Republicans voted NO Secession

76 The southern states voluntarily joined the Union by holding a Constitutional Convention and ratified the Constitution, therefore they reasoned the could leave by the same process Secession

77 The southern states voluntarily joined the Union by holding a Constitutional Convention and ratified the Constitution, therefore they reasoned the could leave by the same process John Crittenden of Kentucky proposed a Constitutional Amendment which would protect the institution of slavery in hopes of averting secession – All Republicans voted NO Dec. 20, 1860 South Carolina convened a Constitutional Convention and voted for secession Secession

78 The southern states voluntarily joined the Union by holding a Constitutional Convention and ratified the Constitution, therefore they reasoned the could leave by the same process John Crittenden of Kentucky proposed a Constitutional Amendment which would protect the institution of slavery in hopes of averting secession – All Republicans voted NO Dec. 20, 1860 South Carolina convened a Constitutional Convention and voted for secession Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana and Texas soon followed and created the Provisional Confederate States of America Secession

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81 “Stars and Bars,” March 4, 1861

82 Army of Northern Virginia November 1861

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84 Jefferson Davis

85 Mexican War hero Senator from Mississippi Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce

86 Jefferson Davis Mexican War hero Senator from Mississippi Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce Did not want the job of President – wanted to be a General

87 Jefferson Davis Mexican War hero Senator from Mississippi Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce Did not want the job of President – wanted to be a General After the war held for Treason Released in 1867

88 Jefferson Davis Mexican War hero Senator from Mississippi Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce Did not want the job of President – wanted to be a General After the war held for Treason Released in 1867 Died a pauper

89 Lincoln’s Inauguration

90 “Whenever people grow weary of the existing government they can exercise their Constitutional right to amend it”

91 He felt that the states had no right to leave the Union because they were unhappy with the policy of a given administration

92 The Union is not a collection of states, rather it is a whole country

93 He felt that the states had no right to leave the Union because they were unhappy with the policy of a given administration The Union is not a collection of states, rather it is a whole country The Federal Government would retain all Federal property

94 He felt that the states had no right to leave the Union because they were unhappy with the policy of a given administration The Union is not a collection of states, rather it is a whole country The Federal Government would retain all Federal property The Federal government would not provoke a war with the rebellious states He hoped they would come to their senses and rejoin the Union

95 He felt that the states had no right to leave the Union because they were unhappy with the policy of a given administration The Union is not a collection of states, rather it is a whole country The Federal Government would retain all Federal property The Federal government would not provoke a war with the rebellious states He hoped they would come to their senses and rejoin the Union

96 Journal: What Would You Do? Journal Entry – 1 page Imagine you are either the newly elected President of the United States of America or the newly elected President of the Confederate States of America Draft a letter to your counterpart Your letter should contain: Your position on the opposing government Your reasons for why or why not the Confederate States of America could or could not exist Your solution to this conflict

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98 First Battle in the War Federal Fort in Charleston Harbor

99 First Battle in the War Federal Fort in Charleston Harbor April 12, 1861 South Carolina militia attacked the fort to secure it and seize weapons

100 First Battle in the War Federal Fort in Charleston Harbor April 12, 1861 South Carolina militia attacked the fort to secure it and seize weapons Militia won

101 First Battle in the War Federal Fort in Charleston Harbor April 12, 1861 South Carolina militia attacked the fort to secure it and seize weapons Militia prevailed Lincoln considered this an act of war against the United States of America and ordered northern governors for 75,000 troops to put down the southern rebellion

102 Who is in charge? CONFEDERATE COMMANDING GENERAL – No real command structure Generals had control of their armies – Robert E. Lee was in charge of the largest army: The Army of Northern Virginia

103 Who is in charge? Confederacy: – PT Beauregard

104 Who is in charge? Confederacy: – PT Beauregard – Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson

105 Who is in charge? Confederacy: – PT Beauregard – Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson – Albert Johnston

106 Who is in charge? Confederacy: – PT Beauregard – Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson – Albert Johnston – Braxton Bragg

107 Who is in charge? Confederacy: – PT Beauregard – Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson – Albert Johnston – Braxton Bragg – J.E.B. Stuart

108 Who is in charge? Confederacy: – PT Beauregard – Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson – Albert Johnston – Braxton Bragg – J.E.B. Stuart – Robert E. Lee

109 Who is in charge? UNION COMMANDING GENERAL – Winfield Scott: Start of War

110 Who is in charge? UNION COMMANDING GENERAL – Winfield Scott: Start of War – Irvin McDowell: May-July 1861

111 Who is in charge? UNION COMMANDING GENERAL – Winfield Scott: Start of War – Irvin McDowell: May-July 1861 – George McClellan: 11/61-3/62

112 Who is in charge? UNION COMMANDING GENERAL – Winfield Scott: Start of War – Irvin McDowell: May-July 1861 – George McClellan: 11/61-3/62 – Henry Halleck: 7/62-3/64

113 Who is in charge? UNION COMMANDING GENERAL – Winfield Scott: Start of War – Irvin McDowell: May-July 1861 – George McClellan: 11/61-3/62 – Henry Halleck: 7/62-3/64 – Ulysses S. Grant: 3/64-end of war

114 Who is in charge? Union Generals: – Irvin McDowell

115 Who is in charge? Union Generals: – Irvin McDowell – George McClellan

116 Who is in charge? Union Generals: – Irvin McDowell – George McClellan – John Pope

117 Who is in charge? Union Generals: – Irvin McDowell – George McClellan – John Pope – Joseph Hooker

118 Who is in charge? Union Generals: – Irvin McDowell – George McClellan – John Pope – Joseph Hooker – Ambrose Burnside

119 Who is in charge? Union Generals: – Irvin McDowell – George McClellan – John Pope – Joseph Hooker – Ambrose Burnside – George Meade

120 Who is in charge? Union Generals: – Irvin McDowell – George McClellan – John Pope – Joseph Hooker – Ambrose Burnside – George Meade – William Tecumseh Sherman

121 Who is in charge? Union Generals: – Irvin McDowell – George McClellan – John Pope – Joseph Hooker – Ambrose Burnside – George Meade – William Tecumseh Sherman – Ulysses S. Grant

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123 Newspaper Project Imagine that you are a reporter who witnesses the Battle of Fort Sumter. Write an article to be published in your newspaper: Describe the battle What are the local townsfolk saying? Predict the consequences 1.Article - One Page in length 2.Create one original political cartoon

124 Traditional view of war

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127 1862 Matthew Brady New York gallery showed photos of the aftermath of the Battle of Antietam

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131 1862 Matthew Brady Public appalled at the scenes of war

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133 Lincoln did not have the Constitutional right to do anything about slavery Emancipation Proclamation

134 Lincoln did not have the Constitutional right to do anything about slavery Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton convinced Lincoln that slave labor was aiding the Southern Cause, so confiscating slaves would be legally justifiable Emancipation Proclamation

135 Lincoln did not have the Constitutional right to do anything about slavery Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton convinced Lincoln that slave labor was aiding the Southern Cause, so confiscating slaves would be legally justifiable Lincoln needed a new source of Northern support because the war waged on and on Emancipation Proclamation

136 Lincoln did not have the Constitutional right to do anything about slavery Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton convinced Lincoln that slave labor was aiding the Southern Cause, so confiscating slaves would be legally justifiable Lincoln needed a new source of Northern support because the war waged on and on The Emancipation Proclamation was a military order that affected only slaves in Confederate States Emancipation Proclamation

137 “All persons held as slaves within any state or designated part of a state the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States shall then, thenceforth, and forever free” Emancipation Proclamation

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141 Ulysses S. Grant

142 William Tecumseh Sherman’s March to the Sea

143 Total War – destroy southern will to continue fighting Slash and Burn everything

144 William Tecumseh Sherman’s March to the Sea Total War – destroy southern will to continue fighting Slash and Burn everything Terrorized residents

145 William Tecumseh Sherman’s March to the Sea Total War – destroy southern will to continue fighting Slash and Burn everything Terrorized residents

146 Grant surrounded Lee’s army at Richmond, VA Lee Appomattox Courthouse April 9, 1865

147 Terms of Surrender: Unconditional surrender

148 Terms of Surrender: Unconditional surrender Grant allowed: Food Horses Rifles No charges of treason against soldiers

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150 Journal – Appomattox Imagine that you are a soldier (Confederate or Union) at the surrender Write a letter home about the surrender Describe the events that led to the surrender Describe the surrender itself Speculate about the effects of the surrender One Full Page IN YOUR JOURNAL !!!!!!!!!!

151 Lincoln Questions Describe President Lincoln’s relationship with his cabinet. What was Thaddeus Stevens’ (Tommy Lee Jones) position on abolition of slavery? Describe the Radical Republicans views on the war and abolition of slavery. Describe Mary Todd Lincoln’s relationship with Congress? Describe Mary Todd Lincoln’s relationship with President Lincoln? Describe the terms under which the Confederate states were willing to stop the war. Describe the USA today if those terms had been accepted. Was President Lincoln “Honest Abe” in this movie? Why/why not?

152 Lincoln Alternative Assignment Text book Read pages Page 521 # 1-4 Page 525 # 1-3 Page 534 # 1-5 Page 543 # 1-5


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