Mao’s Will Lin Biao Gang of Four: Wang Hongwen, Zhang Chunqiao Yao Wenyuan, Jiang Qing Deng Xiao-ping
Cultural Revolution Leaves Factions Begun 1966 as a power struggle by Mao Purpose: remove the bourgeoisie elements of the CCP Establish a RED GUARD of Chinese youth (10-18) for correct thought to unify the proletariat Mao’s Little Red Book to be memorized by all
Upon Mao’s Death… Mao’s widow, Jiang Qing, and associates Deng Xiao-ping, Chief of Staff of the Military chosen by Zhou Enlai
1976=Two Deaths=Big Trouble Zhou Enlai (January 8 th ) from cancer Mao Zedong (September 9 th ) from heart attack, lung cancer and Parkinson
The “Great Helmsman” Gap Mao named Hua Guofeng as his successor Madame Mao, Jiang Qing wanted to lead
In the meantime… Zhou Enlai named Deng Xiaoping Deng arrests the Gang of Four
China under Deng The Four Modernizations Program Agriculture Science Industry Technology Consolidation of Power Reinterpretation of Maoist writings (pre-1960) Hua and the Gang of Four are on trial and disgraced “It does not matter whether the cat is black or white as long as it catches mice.” Pragmatic approach to economics—Socialism with Chinese character.
Changes in China after 1976 Political differences Hong Kong (British—1997) and Macau (Portuguese—1999) returned to China China opens up to capitalist ideas – Inward investment – Special economic zones on coasts – Inflation, end of food subsidies – Crime and corruption Chinese Provinces, 1976c
Tiananmen Square Beijing plaza sees numerous demonstrations 1976: show of support for Deng 1989: pro-democracy riots Students see Gorbachev as a model for change
Western Reaction Frozen aid Soft loans Reciprocal trade agreements Haste to restore normal relations after “Tiananmen Square Massacre” China just too important to punish Amnesty International estimated 3,000 deaths Virtually ignored in official and business world More symbolic than real
Deng’s Dead (1997) Jiang Zemin leads CCP Li Peng, Premier 1997-2002
China Today Hu Hintao: current President of the PDRC Corruption is the norm Multi-national corporations use Chinese labor and low standards One-family/One-child policy is failing Millions of baby girls are abandoned in orphanages left to die Single males form gangs and terrorize cities Communes fail as young people are brought to cities to work in factories Social system fails with an increasingly older population No Social Security Health system is privatized and limited to a few Education is reserved for the influential
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