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Presentation on theme: "Imperialism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Imperialism

2 Imperialism Land power vs. sea powers 1492
New type of Empire building Nationalism + Industrialization = Imperialism Nationalism – motivated overseas expansion Industrialization – increased need for raw materials and markets; enabled better transportation/communication Napoleon Julius Caesar William McKinley

3 Imperialism – Old vs. New
God, Gold, Glory (colonies/ports) Focus on the Americas Portugal, Spain, England, France Political, Economic, Social motivations (colonial, political, economic and social-cultural imperialism) Focus on Africa and Asia ADDING - Germany, Italy, Belgium, US and Japan Fueled by Industrial Rev

4 Motivations for New Imperialism
Economic Raw Materials Markets Investment Opportunities

5 Motivations for New Imperialism
Political Nationalism Competition

6 Motivations for New Imperialism
Philosophical Social Darwinism/Racism Religion

7 Types of New Imperialism
Colonial Colony – more control than in the past Government, economy, society controlled by imperial power Political Military/Diplomatic force to influence internal affairs of the weaker nation Economic Controls trade/commerce Social-Cultural Replaces “native” culture with culture of “mother country”

8 Forms of Imperialism TROPICAL DEPENDENCIES Small # of Europeans ruled non Westerners in less appealing geographic regions and exploited the natural resources. Conflicts often rose due to continued contact between Europeans and non-Europeans EXAMPLES: Asia Africa South Pacific SETTLER COLONIES Destinations of large European migration in more appealing geographic regions with the dual purposes of settling and exploiting the natural resources. Conflicts increased depending on the number of non-Europeans being displaced. In some instances indigenous peoples were almost extinct EXAMPLES: Canada New Zealand Australia

9 Impact of Industrialization on Imperialism
Desire for more raw materials (cotton, hemp, metals, dyes) and markets  caused competition between European countries Bessemer Steel Process Chemical Industry  dyes, fertilizers, explosives Plastics Electricity Steamboats and RR Interior of colonies Suez Canal and Panama Canal

10 Building the British Empire in India
1700s - British East India Co. controlled several port cities 1757 – Battle of Plassey 1857 – Sepoy Rebellion (British Raj) 1948 – Indian independence (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh)

11 Early British Control in India British East India Co.
Port cities – Calcutta

12 Early British Control in India British East India Co.
Nawabs (Muslim princes) agreements with British, Dutch and French companies Company men (Europeans who controlled port trading) Sepoys (hired Indian soldiers)

13 Early British Control in India British East India Co.
Battle of Plassey (part of the 7 years war) – 1757 – gave the British control of the Bengal region.

14 Early British Control in India British East India Co.
Early British interest was primarily economic (East India Co.) therefore control over the political, social and economic structures evolved. Politically - alliances were arranged with Indian regional princes and additional sepoy regiments were created Christian missionaries encouraged conversion to Christianity and adoption of British customs. British Raj provided new jobs (trade/military) and weakened the Indian handicraft textile industry (Indian had previously been the primary exporter of cotton FINISHED goods they exported Indian cotton to British factories

15 Sepoy Rebellion Cultural Conflict  sepoys began to change their allegiance to the Mughal “rulers” instead of the British Britain sent soldiers to put down the rebellion and reestablish control. Rule of the British East India Company was transferred to Queen Victoria who was crowned Empress of India

16 The British Raj – Imperial Rule

17 Political Imperialism in India
Viceroy Indian Civil Service

18 Economic Imperialism in India
Technologies Railroads – largest in Asia steamboats /harbors/ canals Telegraph lines Sewage system Economic Development urbanization crop lands measured/registered forests managed more drawn into the global economy with sale of cotton, opium, tea, silk and sugar to Britain

19 Cultural Imperialism in India
Sati Charles Napier – "Be it so. This burning of widows is your custom; prepare the funeral pile. But my nation has also a custom. When men burn women alive we hang them, and confiscate all their property. My carpenters shall therefore erect gibbets on which to hang all concerned when the widow is consumed. Let us all act according to national customs." [ Education Thomas Babington Macaulay – "educate a people who cannot at present be educated by means of their mother tongue" and thus, by incorporating English, he sought to "enrich" the Indian languages so "that they could become vehicles for European scientific, historical, and literary expression". “ I have no knowledge of either Sanskrit or Arabic. But I have done what I could to form a correct estimate of their value. I have read translations of the most celebrated Arabic and Sanskrit works. I have conversed, both here and at home, with men distinguished by their proficiency in the Eastern tongues. I am quite ready to take the oriental learning at the valuation of the orientalists themselves. I have never found one among them who could deny that a single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia. The intrinsic superiority of the Western literature is indeed fully admitted by those members of the committee who support the oriental plan of education.”

20 India’s Response to Imperialism
British Educational System for India Development of Indian Nationalism Ram Roy Indian National Congress

21 Southeast Asia

22 Southeast Asia Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) –
Previously…. Tighter control Military Commodities – sugar, tea, coffee, rubber, tin, spices Burma –teak/rubies/jade/ivory Singapore – port, base to conquer Malay states Indo China – left over Philippines – Siam -


24 The Pacific

25 Australia

26 New Zealand

27 Hawaii

28 Philippines

29 Africa

30 Africa Africa IR – technology could allow“ deepest, darkest, Africa” to be penetrated for … diamonds, gold, copper agricultural products

31 Africa 1914

32 Scramble for Africa 1871 – Germany becomes a country (official name – German Empire) Between – European countries began to claim African lands 1884 – Berlin Conference (Otto von Bismarck)

33 Explorers/Missionaries
David Livingstone – Inspired desire for new converts Mapped unknown African areas/rivers Dr. Stanley – on lake Tanganyika… “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” Dr. Stanley established trading posts on the way home for King Leopold II (Belgium) 3 Cs (Commerce, Civilization, Christianity)

34 Mosi-oa-Tunya “smoke that thunders” Victoria Falls

35 Examples of Imperialism Egypt
Ottoman Empire Muhammad Ali Western technology/Modernization Irrigation Mills Army Secular schools Efficient bureaucracy DEBT and the American Civil War ends European advisors….British soldiers… British colony

36 Examples of Imperialism Algeria
French invade in 1830 (piracy/debt) War 1870s – French settlers

37 Example of Imperialism Southern Africa
Cecil Rhodes De Beers Consolidation Northern Rhodesia Southern Rhodesia Boer War 1910 – Union of South Africa


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