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DEFENSE and SUPPORT: Muscular and Skeletal Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "DEFENSE and SUPPORT: Muscular and Skeletal Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 DEFENSE and SUPPORT: Muscular and Skeletal Systems

2 How do these systems provide DEFENSE and SUPPORT?
Skeletal System: produces immune cells to protect against disease causing bacteria and viruses. Muscular system: coordinates with the nervous system to help animals respond to their environment.

3 Skeletal System: The main organs of the skeletal system are the _______. bones Main Functions: Supports & gives shape to body Protects internal organs Provides for movement Stores minerals (calcium & magnesium) Blood cells produced in bone marrow

4 Evolutionary Trends of the Skeletal and Muscular Systems
Simple Complex Skeleton Hydrostatic Skeleton Exoskeleton Endoskeleton Type of support Have muscles surrounding a fluid-filled cavity . When contracted, they push against the fluid and cause the body to change shape. A hard external skeleton, made of chitin and is continually shed as the organism grows - molting. Have a well developed Endoskeleton or internal skeleton made of calcified plates. Picture of system Examples Annelids (worms) and Cnidarians (Jellyfish) Arthropods (Insects) and Crustaceans mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, amphibians, starfish

5 Characteristics and Functions
a. Bones are attached to other bones with special connective tissues known as _________. ligaments

6 b. Cartilage is found at ends of bones at joints, reduces friction in movable joints (does NOT contain blood vessels)

7 The cartilage in the growth plates is replaced by bone, the bones become completely ossified, and the person “stops growing.”

8 c. A place where one bone attaches to another is called a joint.

9 3 Types of Joints & Their Movements
i. Immoveable (fixed) joint: no movement Bones of skull; fused ii. Freely moveable: wide range of movement Bone ends covered in cartilage iii. Slightly moveable: permit small amount of movement Between vertebrae

10 Types of Freely Moveable Joints
Ball-and-Socket Joint: Permit movement in many directions; widest range of movement of any joint (examples: shoulder and hip) Hinge Joint: Permit back and forth motion (examples: elbow and knee)

11 Types of Freely Moveable Joints
3. Pivot Joint: Allow one bone to rotate around another (example: neck, forearm bones) 4. Saddle (Gliding) Joint: Permit one bone to slide past another bone (example: thumb/wrist )

12 d. Bones are a living part of your body that contain _________ tissue to send and receive information, as well as blood vessels to bring the __________ and ________ gas that is necessary for the bones’ health and growth. nervous nutrients oxygen

13 e. Bone is composed of two types of tissue:
Spongy: soft, interior layer of bone tissue. Site of red blood cell production Less dense Contains bone marrow Compact: outer layer of tissue surrounding bone. Stores minerals – Calcium. Extremely dense and strong

14 marrow blood circulatory
Photo by Steve Fruitsmaak f. Bone _________ is found inside of bones. This tissue is responsible for creating new _______ cells in animals. These cells are a vital part of the ___________ system. marrow blood circulatory

15 Three Types of Bone Cells
Osteocytes – Mature bone cells that are embedded in the bone matrix. Osteoclasts – Bone cells that break down bone; Line the Haversian canals and the surfaces of compact and spongy bone. Osteoblasts – Bone cells that produce bone; Line the Haversian canals and the surfaces of compact and spongy bone.

16 Development of Bones *The skeleton of an embryo is composed almost entirely of cartilage. *Cartilage is replaced by bone during the process of bone formation called ossification. *Ossification begins to take place up to seven months before birth. *Osteoblasts secrete mineral deposits that replace cartilage osteoblasts become surrounded by bone tissue  mature to osteocytes

17 Organization of Life: Skeletal System
 Compact or Spongy  Femur, Tibia, Vertebrae, Skull  SKELETAL  OSTEOCYTES

18 Skeletal Body System Interactions:
Circulatory System: bones help produce new blood cells in addition to storing minerals transported by the circulatory system. Muscular System: bones and muscles work in opposing pairs to perform body movement. Muscles and bones support, protect, and maintain posture for the human body. Nervous System: bones protect many vital organs of the nervous system – Skull (brain), Vertebrae (spinal cord).

19 Skeletal System Disorders
Arthritis – inflammation of the joint itself Kyphosis (hunchback) –curvature of upper spine

20 Dowager’s hump PROBLEM: Osteoporosis is a weakening of bones due to loss of calcium that is more common in older women =Increased risk for fracture

21 Change in Bone Density over Time
What can be done now about bone loss? Eat foods containing calcium, magnesium and phosphorous now (as teens) why you still are building bone mass. Continue weight-bearing exercises throughout your life to keep the bone mass you built earlier on.

22 Bones in the Human Skeleton
Here are the main bones everyone should know. Where is your FUNNY BONE?!?!??

23 Muscular System: The main organs of the muscular system are the muscles. There are 3 types of muscles tissue made up of individual muscle cells, called fibers.

24 Types of Muscles: Skeletal Muscle
1. _________________: These muscles are usually attached to _______ and allow for the movement of ______. Since these muscles can be controlled by a the organism, they are known as __________ muscles. These muscles also help maintain our posture and protect internal organs. This type of muscle is striated. Skeletal Muscle bones limbs voluntary

25 Types of Muscles: Smooth Muscle
2. ________________: This type of muscle is found within the walls of organs like the ___________, _________, and the __________ allowing these organs to ________ and ________. Smooth muscle is not under conscious control, so it is known as ____________ muscle. Is NOT striated. intestines diaphragm bladder Why it is called smooth! expand contract involuntary Image by Theresa Knott

26 -Smooth muscle also helps move food through your digestive tract via the process Peristalsis.

27 Types of Muscles: Cardiac Muscle
3. _______________: This type of muscle is not under your control, so it is also considered ____________. It is only found in the _______ which is why it is called ________ muscle. Is striated. involuntary heart cardiac

28 How Muscles and Bones Interact
a. Skeletal muscles are joined to bones by tough connective tissues called tendons. Tendons pull on the bones and make them work like levers. The muscles provide the force to move the lever. Usually, there are several muscles surrounding each joint that pull in different directions.

29 How Muscles and Bones Interact
a. Most skeletal muscles work in opposing pairs. When one muscle contracts, the other relaxes. The muscle that contracts is the flexor while the muscle that lengthens and relaxes is the extensor In order for the biceps muscle to contract (flex) the triceps muscle has to relax. Therefore the biceps is your flexor muscle while your triceps is your extensor muscle.

30 c. Muscles use a large amount of ________
c. Muscles use a large amount of ________. This requires them to produce large amounts of the energy molecule called _____. These molecules are produced in the _____________ through the process of cellular respiration. This is why there are a greater than average number of mitochondria in ________ cells. energy ATP mitochondria muscle

31 d. Cellular respiration requires the body to absorb ________ gas
d. Cellular respiration requires the body to absorb ________ gas. When ____ cannot be absorbed fast enough, the body produces a compound known as __________. oxygen O2 lactic acid

32 Disorders to worry about
Black widow bite – releases more ACH = muscle spasms Botox – blocks release of ACH from neurons paralyzing the muscles in your face = no wrinkles Tetanus- infection causing muscle spasms to develop by blocking motor neurons Lockjaw, neonatal tetanus

33 Organization of Life: Muscular System
Muscle Fiber Cell Cardiac Smooth Skeletal Tissue Organ Bicep Stomach Heart Organ System Muscular System

34 Muscular Body System Interactions:
Digestive System: smooth muscle found in the stomach and intestinal tract helps move digested food through the body. Circulatory /Respiratory System: products of cellular respiration (CO2, lactic acid) from the muscular system are removed via the blood stream. Nervous System: signals muscles to contract for movement and response to environmental stimuli.

Quadriceps Hamstrings Quadriceps

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