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DEFENSE and SUPPORT: Muscular and Skeletal Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "DEFENSE and SUPPORT: Muscular and Skeletal Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 DEFENSE and SUPPORT: Muscular and Skeletal Systems

2 Skeletal System: produces immune cells to protect against disease causing bacteria and viruses. Muscular system: coordinates with the nervous system to help animals respond to their environment. How do these systems provide DEFENSE and SUPPORT?

3 The main organs of the skeletal system are the _______. bones Skeletal System: Main Functions: 1. Supports & gives shape to body 2. Protects internal organs 3. Provides for movement 4. Stores minerals (calcium & magnesium) 5. Blood cells produced in bone marrow

4 Evolutionary Trends of the Skeletal and Muscular Systems Simple Complex

5 a. Bones are attached to other bones with special connective tissues known as _________. ligaments Characteristics and Functions

6 b. Cartilage is found at ends of bones at joints, reduces friction in movable joints (does NOT contain blood vessels)

7 The cartilage in the growth plates is replaced by bone, the bones become completely ossified, and the person “stops growing.”

8 c. A place where one bone attaches to another is called a joint.

9 3 Types of Joints & Their Movements i. Immoveable (fixed) joint: no movement Bones of skull; fused ii. Freely moveable: wide range of movement Bone ends covered in cartilage iii. Slightly moveable: permit small amount of movement Between vertebrae

10 Types of Freely Moveable Joints 1.Ball-and-Socket Joint: Permit movement in many directions; widest range of movement of any joint (examples: shoulder and hip) 2.Hinge Joint: Permit back and forth motion (examples: elbow and knee)

11 Types of Freely Moveable Joints 3. Pivot Joint: Allow one bone to rotate around another (example: neck, forearm bones) 4. Saddle (Gliding) Joint: Permit one bone to slide past another bone (example: thumb/wrist )

12 d. Bones are a living part of your body that contain _________ tissue to send and receive information, as well as blood vessels to bring the __________ and ________ gas that is necessary for the bones’ health and growth. nervous nutrients oxygen

13 e. Bone is composed of two types of tissue: – Spongy: soft, interior layer of bone tissue. Site of red blood cell production Less dense Contains bone marrow – Compact: outer layer of tissue surrounding bone. Stores minerals – Calcium. Extremely dense and strong

14 f. Bone _________ is found inside of bones. This tissue is responsible for creating new _______ cells in animals. These cells are a vital part of the ___________ system. marrow blood circulatory Photo by Steve Fruitsmaak

15 Three Types of Bone Cells 1.Osteocytes – Mature bone cells that are embedded in the bone matrix. 2.Osteoclasts – Bone cells that break down bone; Line the Haversian canals and the surfaces of compact and spongy bone. 3.Osteoblasts – Bone cells that produce bone; Line the Haversian canals and the surfaces of compact and spongy bone.

16 Development of Bones *The skeleton of an embryo is composed almost entirely of cartilage. *Cartilage is replaced by bone during the process of bone formation called ossification. *Ossification begins to take place up to seven months before birth. *Osteoblasts secrete mineral deposits that replace cartilage  osteoblasts become surrounded by bone tissue  mature to osteocytes

17 Organization of Life: Skeletal System Compact or Spongy Femur, Tibia, Vertebrae, Skull SKELETAL OSTEOCYTES

18 Skeletal Body System Interactions: Circulatory System: bones help produce new blood cells in addition to storing minerals transported by the circulatory system. Muscular System: bones and muscles work in opposing pairs to perform body movement. Muscles and bones support, protect, and maintain posture for the human body. Nervous System: bones protect many vital organs of the nervous system – Skull (brain), Vertebrae (spinal cord).

19 Skeletal System Disorders Arthritis – inflammation of the joint itself Kyphosis (hunchback) – curvature of upper spine

20 PROBLEM: Osteoporosis is a weakening of bones due to loss of calcium that is more common in older women =Increased risk for fracture Dowager’s hump

21 Change in Bone Density over Time What can be done now about bone loss? Eat foods containing calcium, magnesium and phosphorous now (as teens) why you still are building bone mass. Continue weight-bearing exercises throughout your life to keep the bone mass you built earlier on.

22 Bones in the Human Skeleton Here are the main bones everyone should know. Where is your FUNNY BONE?!?!??

23 The main organs of the muscular system are the muscles. There are 3 types of muscles tissue made up of individual muscle cells, called fibers. Muscular System:

24 Types of Muscles: 1. _________________: These muscles are usually attached to _______ and allow for the movement of ______. Since these muscles can be controlled by a the organism, they are known as __________ muscles. These muscles also help maintain our posture and protect internal organs. This type of muscle is striated. Skeletal Muscle bones voluntary limbs

25 Types of Muscles: 2. ________________: This type of muscle is found within the walls of organs like the ___________, _________, and the __________ allowing these organs to ________ and ________. Smooth muscle is not under conscious control, so it is known as ____________ muscle. Is NOT striated. Smooth Muscle intestines diaphragm bladder involuntary Image by Theresa Knott expandcontract Why it is called smooth!

26 -Smooth muscle also helps move food through your digestive tract via the process Peristalsis.

27 Types of Muscles: 3. _______________: This type of muscle is not under your control, so it is also considered ____________. It is only found in the _______ which is why it is called ________ muscle. Is striated. Cardiac Muscle involuntary heart cardiac

28 a. Skeletal muscles are joined to bones by tough connective tissues called tendons. – Tendons pull on the bones and make them work like levers. – The muscles provide the force to move the lever. – Usually, there are several muscles surrounding each joint that pull in different directions. How Muscles and Bones Interact

29 a. Most skeletal muscles work in opposing pairs. When one muscle contracts, the other relaxes. – The muscle that contracts is the flexor while the muscle that lengthens and relaxes is the extensor In order for the biceps muscle to contract (flex) the triceps muscle has to relax. Therefore the biceps is your flexor muscle while your triceps is your extensor muscle. How Muscles and Bones Interact

30 c. Muscles use a large amount of ________. This requires them to produce large amounts of the energy molecule called _____. These molecules are produced in the _____________ through the process of cellular respiration. This is why there are a greater than average number of mitochondria in ________ cells. energy ATP mitochondria muscle

31 d. Cellular respiration requires the body to absorb ________ gas. When ____ cannot be absorbed fast enough, the body produces a compound known as __________. oxygen lactic acid O2O2

32 Black widow bite – releases more ACH = muscle spasms Botox – blocks release of ACH from neurons paralyzing the muscles in your face = no wrinkles Tetanus- infection causing muscle spasms to develop by blocking motor neurons – Lockjaw, neonatal tetanus Disorders to worry about

33 Organization of Life: Muscular System Cell Muscle Fiber Tissue Skeletal Smooth Cardiac Organ Bicep Stomach Heart Organ System Muscular System

34 Muscular Body System Interactions: Digestive System: smooth muscle found in the stomach and intestinal tract helps move digested food through the body. Circulatory /Respiratory System: products of cellular respiration (CO 2, lactic acid) from the muscular system are removed via the blood stream. Nervous System: signals muscles to contract for movement and response to environmental stimuli.

35 LABEL THE FOLLOWING MUSCLES ON YOUR PICTURE. Hamstrings Quadriceps


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