Presentation on theme: "DEFENSE and SUPPORT: Muscular and Skeletal Systems."— Presentation transcript:
1DEFENSE and SUPPORT:Muscular and Skeletal Systems
2How do these systems provide DEFENSE and SUPPORT? Skeletal System: produces immune cells to protect against disease causing bacteria and viruses.Muscular system: coordinates with the nervous system to help animals respond to their environment.
3Skeletal System:The main organs of the skeletal system are the _______.bonesMain Functions:Supports & gives shape to bodyProtects internal organsProvides for movementStores minerals (calcium & magnesium)Blood cells produced in bone marrow
4Evolutionary Trends of the Skeletal and Muscular Systems SimpleComplexSkeletonHydrostatic SkeletonExoskeletonEndoskeletonType of supportHave muscles surrounding a fluid-filled cavity . When contracted, they push against the fluid and cause the body to change shape.A hard external skeleton, made of chitin and is continually shed as the organism grows - molting.Have a well developed Endoskeleton or internal skeleton made of calcified plates.Picture of systemExamplesAnnelids (worms) and Cnidarians (Jellyfish)Arthropods (Insects) and Crustaceansmammals, birds, reptiles, fish, amphibians, starfish
5Characteristics and Functions a. Bones are attached to other bones with special connective tissues known as _________.ligaments
6b. Cartilage is found at ends of bones at joints, reduces friction in movable joints (does NOT contain blood vessels)
7The cartilage in the growth plates is replaced by bone, the bones become completely ossified, and the person “stops growing.”
8c. A place where one bone attaches to another is called a joint.
93 Types of Joints & Their Movements i. Immoveable (fixed) joint: no movementBones of skull; fusedii. Freely moveable: wide range of movementBone ends covered in cartilageiii. Slightly moveable: permit small amount of movementBetween vertebrae
10Types of Freely Moveable Joints Ball-and-Socket Joint: Permit movement in many directions; widest range of movement of any joint (examples: shoulder and hip)Hinge Joint: Permit back and forth motion (examples: elbow and knee)
11Types of Freely Moveable Joints 3. Pivot Joint: Allow one bone to rotate around another (example: neck, forearm bones)4. Saddle (Gliding) Joint: Permit one bone to slide past another bone (example: thumb/wrist )
12d. Bones are a living part of your body that contain _________ tissue to send and receive information, as well as blood vessels to bring the __________ and ________ gas that is necessary for the bones’ health and growth.nervousnutrientsoxygen
13e. Bone is composed of two types of tissue: Spongy: soft, interior layer of bone tissue.Site of red blood cell productionLess denseContains bone marrowCompact: outer layer of tissue surrounding bone.Stores minerals – Calcium.Extremely dense and strong
14marrow blood circulatory Photo by Steve Fruitsmaakf. Bone _________ is found inside of bones. This tissue is responsible for creating new _______ cells in animals. These cells are a vital part of the ___________ system.marrowbloodcirculatory
15Three Types of Bone Cells Osteocytes – Mature bone cells that are embedded in the bone matrix.Osteoclasts – Bone cells that break down bone; Line the Haversian canals and the surfaces of compact and spongy bone.Osteoblasts – Bone cells that produce bone; Line the Haversian canals and the surfaces of compact and spongy bone.
16Development of Bones*The skeleton of an embryo is composed almost entirely of cartilage.*Cartilage is replaced by bone during the process of bone formation called ossification.*Ossification begins to take place up to seven months before birth.*Osteoblasts secrete mineral deposits that replace cartilage osteoblasts become surrounded by bone tissue mature to osteocytes
17Organization of Life: Skeletal System Compact or Spongy Femur, Tibia, Vertebrae, Skull SKELETAL OSTEOCYTES
18Skeletal Body System Interactions: Circulatory System: bones help produce new blood cells in addition to storing minerals transported by the circulatory system.Muscular System: bones and muscles work in opposing pairs to perform body movement. Muscles and bones support, protect, and maintain posture for the human body.Nervous System: bones protect many vital organs of the nervous system – Skull (brain), Vertebrae (spinal cord).
19Skeletal System Disorders Arthritis – inflammation of the joint itselfKyphosis (hunchback) –curvature of upper spine
20Dowager’s humpPROBLEM: Osteoporosis is a weakening of bones due to loss of calcium that is more common in older women =Increased risk for fracture
21Change in Bone Density over Time What can be done now about bone loss?Eat foods containing calcium, magnesium and phosphorous now (as teens) why you still are building bone mass.Continue weight-bearing exercises throughout your life to keep the bone mass you built earlier on.
22Bones in the Human Skeleton Here are the main bones everyone should know.Where is your FUNNY BONE?!?!??
23Muscular System:The main organs of the muscular system are the muscles. There are 3 types of muscles tissue made up of individual muscle cells, called fibers.
24Types of Muscles: Skeletal Muscle 1. _________________: These muscles are usually attached to _______ and allow for the movement of ______. Since these muscles can be controlled by a the organism, they are known as __________ muscles. These muscles also help maintain our posture and protect internal organs. This type of muscle is striated.Skeletal Muscleboneslimbsvoluntary
25Types of Muscles: Smooth Muscle 2. ________________: This type of muscle is found within the walls of organs like the ___________, _________, and the __________ allowing these organs to ________ and ________. Smooth muscle is not under conscious control, so it is known as ____________ muscle. Is NOT striated.intestinesdiaphragmbladderWhy it is called smooth!expandcontractinvoluntaryImage by Theresa Knott
26-Smooth muscle also helps move food through your digestive tract via the process Peristalsis.
27Types of Muscles: Cardiac Muscle 3. _______________: This type of muscle is not under your control, so it is also considered ____________. It is only found in the _______ which is why it is called ________ muscle. Is striated.involuntaryheartcardiac
28How Muscles and Bones Interact a. Skeletal muscles are joined to bones by tough connective tissues called tendons.Tendons pull on the bones and make them work like levers.The muscles provide the force to move the lever.Usually, there are several muscles surrounding each joint that pull in different directions.
29How Muscles and Bones Interact a. Most skeletal muscles work in opposing pairs. When one muscle contracts, the other relaxes.The muscle that contracts is the flexor while the muscle that lengthens and relaxes is the extensorIn order for the biceps muscle to contract (flex) the triceps muscle has to relax. Therefore the biceps is your flexor muscle while your triceps is your extensor muscle.
30c. Muscles use a large amount of ________ c. Muscles use a large amount of ________. This requires them to produce large amounts of the energy molecule called _____. These molecules are produced in the _____________ through the process of cellular respiration. This is why there are a greater than average number of mitochondria in ________ cells.energyATPmitochondriamuscle
31d. Cellular respiration requires the body to absorb ________ gas d. Cellular respiration requires the body to absorb ________ gas. When ____ cannot be absorbed fast enough, the body produces a compound known as __________.oxygenO2lactic acid
32Disorders to worry about Black widow bite – releases more ACH = muscle spasmsBotox – blocks release of ACH from neurons paralyzing the muscles in your face = no wrinklesTetanus- infection causing muscle spasms to develop by blocking motor neuronsLockjaw, neonatal tetanus
33Organization of Life: Muscular System Muscle FiberCellCardiacSmoothSkeletalTissueOrgan Bicep Stomach HeartOrgan System Muscular System
34Muscular Body System Interactions: Digestive System: smooth muscle found in the stomach and intestinal tract helps move digested food through the body.Circulatory /Respiratory System: products of cellular respiration (CO2, lactic acid) from the muscular system are removed via the blood stream.Nervous System: signals muscles to contract for movement and response to environmental stimuli.
35LABEL THE FOLLOWING MUSCLES ON YOUR PICTURE. QuadricepsHamstringsQuadriceps