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Preaching Mark and John in Year B Mark G. Vitalis Hoffman Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg CrossMarks.com.

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Presentation on theme: "Preaching Mark and John in Year B Mark G. Vitalis Hoffman Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg CrossMarks.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 Preaching Mark and John in Year B Mark G. Vitalis Hoffman Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg CrossMarks.com

2  Resources  Overview of Lectionary  Survey of Mark  Narrative Criticism  Survey of John

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4 Online  Textweek.com  WorkingPreacher.org  ON Scripture :  ELCA Year B :  United Methodist RCL : y__ htm  Christian Resource Institute :  Narrative Lectionary :

5 Revised Common Lectionary Bible Software  Accordance – Free at:  BibleWorks – Free module: bibleworks.oldinthenew.org  Logos – Free in Logos4 (includes RC, RCL, UM Lectionaries; $5 for Logos3) Downloadable for Outlook, iPhone, Google, Palm  Free: ($7.50 at UCC site)

6 HOLY WEEK ADVENT EASTER PENTECOST XMAS EPIPHANY LENT EPIPHANYBAPTISM TRANSFIG- URATION EASTER ASH WED. PENT- ECOST HOLY TRINITY CHRIST KING Advent starts November27 Advent starts November27 Christmas Day is a Sunday Christmas Day is a Sunday January 1 is a Sunday January 1 is a Sunday Epiphany = January 6 is a Friday Epiphany = January 6 is a Friday Baptism of Lord = Sunday, Jan. 8 Baptism of Lord = Sunday, Jan. 8 Transfiguration = February 19 Transfiguration = February 19 Ash Wednesday = February 22 Ash Wednesday = February 22 Palm/Passion Sunday = April 1 Palm/Passion Sunday = April 1 Easter = April 8 Easter = April 8 Pentecost = May 27 Pentecost = May 27 Holy Trinity = June 3 Holy Trinity = June 3 (>> skip Proper 4 / Ord 10) (>> skip Proper 4 / Ord 10) Reformation = October 28 Reformation = October 28 All Saints = November 4 All Saints = November 4 Thanksgiving = Nov 22 Thanksgiving = Nov 22 Christ the King = Nov 25 Christ the King = Nov 25

7 HOLY WEEK ADVENT EASTER PENTECOST XMAS EPIPHANY LENT EPIPHANYBAPTISM TRANSFIG- URATION EASTER ASH WED. PENT- ECOST HOLY TRINITY CHRIST KING ADVENT 1)Mark 13:24-37 – Keep awake! 2)Mark 1:1-8 – John the Baptist 3)John 1:6-8, John the Baptist 4)Luke 1: Annunciation CHRISTMAS EVE Luke 2:1-20 CHRISTMAS DAY John 1: st SUNDAY AFTER CHRISTMAS Luke 2: Simeon & Anna

8 HOLY WEEK ADVENT EASTER PENTECOST XMAS EPIPHANY LENT EPIPHANYBAPTISM TRANSFIG- URATION EASTER ASH WED. PENT- ECOST HOLY TRINITY CHRIST KING EPIPHANY (Day: Matthew 2:1-12 – Wise Men) Baptism: Mark 1:4-11 2)John 1:43-51 – Philip & Nathaniel 3)Mark 1:14-20 – Jesus begins ministry 4)Mark 1:21-28 – Man w/ unclean spirit 5)Mark 1:29-39 – Healing and preaching 6)Mark 1:40-45 – Healing a leper 7)Mark 2:1-12 – Forgiveness/Healing of paralytic 8)Mark 2:13-22 – Eating with sinners 9)Mark 2:23-3:6 – ‘Working‘ and healing on Sabbath Transfiguration: Mark 9:2-9

9 HOLY WEEK ADVENT EASTER PENTECOST XMAS EPIPHANY LENT EPIPHANYBAPTISM TRANSFIG- URATION EASTER ASH WED. PENT- ECOST HOLY TRINITY CHRIST KING LENT 1)Mark 1:9-15 – Baptism, Wilderness, Preaching 2)Mark 8: Peter‘s Confession or Mark 9:2-9 - Transfiguration 3)John 2:13-22 – Cleansing the Temple 4)John 3: Nicodemus 5)John 12: Jesus speaks about his death Palm Sunday Mark 11:1-11 or John 12:12-16 Mark 11:1-11 or John 12:12-16 Passion Sunday Mark 14:1-15:47 or Mark 15:1-39, (40-47) Mark 14:1-15:47 or Mark 15:1-39, (40-47)

10 HOLY WEEK ADVENT EASTER PENTECOST XMAS EPIPHANY LENT EPIPHANYBAPTISM TRANSFIG- URATION EASTER ASH WED. PENT- ECOST HOLY TRINITY CHRIST KING HOLY WEEK M:John 12: Anointing T: John 12:20-36 – Re: Jesus’ death W: John 13:21-32 – Foretells betrayal Th: John 13:1-17, 31b-35 – Wash feet; Love! F: John 18:1-19:42 - Passion Sat: Matthew 27: Burial or John 19: Burial

11 HOLY WEEK ADVENT EASTER PENTECOST XMAS EPIPHANY LENT EPIPHANYBAPTISM TRANSFIG- URATION EASTER ASH WED. PENT- ECOST HOLY TRINITY CHRIST KING EASTER Day: John 20:1-18 or Mark 16:1-8 2)John 20:19-31 – Unbelieving Thomas 3)Luke 24:36b-48 – Road to Emmaus 4)John 10:11-18 – Good Shepherd 5)John 15:1-8 – True Vine 6)John 15:9-17 – Love command Ascension: Luke 24: )John 17: Prayer for disciples

12 HOLY WEEK ADVENT EASTER PENTECOST XMAS EPIPHANY LENT EPIPHANYBAPTISM TRANSFIG- URATION EASTER ASH WED. PENT- ECOST HOLY TRINITY CHRIST KING PENTECOST Pentecost: John 15:26-27,16:4b-15 – Advocate/Spirit’s coming Holy Trinity: John 3: Nicodemus 4)Mark 2:23-3:6 – ‘Working’ and healing on Sabbath 5)Mark 3:20-35 – Divided kingdom; true family 6)Mark 4:26-34 – Parables of growing seed & mustard seed 7)Mark 4:35-41 – Calms storm on sea 8)Mark 5:21-43 – Girl and woman restored 9)Mark 6:1-13 – Rejection at Nazareth; Mission of 12 10)Mark 6:14-29 – Death of John the Baptist 11)Mark 6:30-34, – Teaching & healing (omit 5000 fed & walk on water) #s are Proper #s; Add 5 for Lectionary #

13 HOLY WEEK ADVENT EASTER PENTECOST XMAS EPIPHANY LENT EPIPHANYBAPTISM TRANSFIG- URATION EASTER ASH WED. PENT- ECOST HOLY TRINITY CHRIST KING PENTECOST 12)John 6:1-21 – Feeding 5000, walk on water 13)John 6: Bread I 14)John 6:35, Bread II 15)John 6: Bread III 16)John 6: Bread IV 17)Mark 7:1-8, 14-15, – True purity 18)Mark 7:24-37 – Syrophoencian woman; deaf man 19)Mark 8:27-38 – Peter‘s confession; passion; cross-bearing 20)Mark 9:30-37 – Passion; who is greatest #s are Proper #s; Add 5 for Lectionary #

14 HOLY WEEK ADVENT EASTER PENTECOST XMAS EPIPHANY LENT EPIPHANYBAPTISM TRANSFIG- URATION EASTER ASH WED. PENT- ECOST HOLY TRINITY CHRIST KING PENTECOST 21)Mark 9: Another exorcist; temptations 22)Mark 10:2-16 – On divorce; welcoming children 23)Mark 10:17-31 – Rich man 24)Mark 10:35-45 – James & John‘s request > < Jesus 25)Mark 10:46-52 – Blind Bartimaeus 26)Mark 12:28-34 – Greatest command 27)Mark 12:38-44 – Widow‘s two coins 28)Mark 13:1-8 – Sign of the end Christ the King: John 18:33-37 – Jesus before Pilate #s are Proper #s; Add 5 for Lectionary #

15 HOLY WEEK ADVENT EASTER PENTECOST XMAS EPIPHANY LENT EPIPHANYBAPTISM TRANSFIG- URATION EASTER ASH WED. PENT- ECOST HOLY TRINITY CHRIST KING Mark Luke Mark Mark... Mark/John John – Mark... John Mark John John John John John... Jn, Lk Luke Luke Mark... John...

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17 Available at: selectlearning.org $50 includes study guide

18 Who was “Mark”? Traditional Author: John Mark of Acts 12:12-25; 15:37; Col 4:10; Phlm 1:24; 1Pet 5:13 (?); connected with Barnabas and Peter Location: Rome… but maybe Decapolis, Syria, or Alexandria Date: Late 60’s-Early 70’s – i.e., around time of Jewish War

19 The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus the Christ, Son of God… Ἀ ρχ ὴ το ῦ ε ὐ αγγελ ί ου Ἰ ησο ῦ Χριστο ῦ [υ ἱ ο ῦ θεο ῦ ]. Ἀ ρχ ὴ το ῦ ε ὐ αγγελ ί ου Ἰ ησο ῦ Χριστο ῦ [υ ἱ ο ῦ θεο ῦ ]. What is assumed about the reader with this opening statement?

20 In those days Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan.

21 And just as he was coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens torn apart and the Spirit descending like a dove on him.

22 σχιζομ έ νους το ὺ ς ο ὐ ρανο ύ ς

23 And just as he was coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens torn apart and the Spirit descending like a dove on/into him. τ ὸ πνε ῦ μα ὡ ς περιστερ ὰ ν καταβα ῖ νον ε ἰ ς α ὐ τ ό ν·

24 And a voice came from heaven, "You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased."

25 14 Now after John was arrested, Jesus came to Galilee, proclaiming the good news of God, 15 and saying, "The time is fulfilled, and the dominion of God has come near; repent, and believe in the good news."

26 27 Jesus went on with his disciples to the villages of Caesarea Philippi; and on the way he asked his disciples, "Who do people say that I am?" 27 Jesus went on with his disciples to the villages of Caesarea Philippi; and on the way he asked his disciples, "Who do people say that I am?" 28 And they answered him, "John the Baptist; and others, Elijah; and still others, one of the prophets." 28 And they answered him, "John the Baptist; and others, Elijah; and still others, one of the prophets." 29 He asked them, "But who do you say that I am?" Peter answered him, "You are the Messiah." 29 He asked them, "But who do you say that I am?" Peter answered him, "You are the Messiah." 30 And he sternly ordered them not to tell anyone about him. 31 Then he began to teach them that the Son of Man must undergo great suffering, and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. 30 And he sternly ordered them not to tell anyone about him. 31 Then he began to teach them that the Son of Man must undergo great suffering, and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again.

27 Mark Then a cloud overshadowed them, and from the cloud there came a voice, “This is my Son, the Beloved; listen to him!” 8 Suddenly when they looked around, they saw no one with them any more, but only Jesus.

28 breathed Mark Then Jesus gave a loud cry and breathed his last. ὁ δ ὲ Ἰ ησο ῦ ς ἀ φε ὶ ς φων ὴ ν μεγ ά λην ἐ ξ έ πνευσεν

29 torn Mark Then Jesus gave a loud cry and breathed his last. And the curtain of the temple was torn in two, from top to bottom. τ ὸ καταπ έ τασμα το ῦ ναο ῦ ἐ σχ ί σθη

30 Mark Now when the centurion, who stood facing him, saw that in this way he breathed his last, he said, "Truly this man was God's Son!"

31 the curtain of the temple was torn in two the heavens torn apart

32 … and he expired … the Spirit descended… into him

33 "Truly this man was God's Son!" “You are the Messiah.” “This is my Son, the Beloved; listen to him!” "You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased."

34 What did the centurion see? What did the disciples see? What did the disciples see? What did John the Baptist see?

35 What did you see?

36 see Mark Allan Powell What Is Narrative Criticism? Introducing the NT 2.7 Introducing the NT 2.7

37 Q Gospel of Mark Textual Criticism Manuscript Traditions Historical Jesus Oral Traditions of Early Church Gospel of Luke Gospel of Matthew Source Criticism Redaction Criticism Form Criticism

38 Q Historical Jesus Oral Traditions of Early Church Gospel of Luke Gospel of Matthew Source Criticism Redaction Criticism Form Criticism Gospel of Mark

39 Q Narrative Criticism Historical Jesus Oral Traditions of Early Church Gospel of Luke Literary Criticism Focus on finished form of textFocus on finished form of text Emphasis on unity of text as a wholeEmphasis on unity of text as a whole Gospel of Matthew

40 There’s this guy who dies and...

41 Discourse (Rhetoric) Story

42 Discourse How the story is told Story What is said

43 Discourse How the story is told How it affects the hearer Story What is said Characters, events, places

44 Discourse How the story is told How it affects the hearer Attention to temporal experience of reading Story What is said Characters, events, places Attention to how story turns out

45 The rhetorical / persuasive techniques of the narrative creates opportunities for the reader to ‘invest’ in the story That is, the reader is being persuaded to believe that the story is true

46 Point of view of Narrator (Mark) = Point of view of Jesus = Point of view of Reader

47 The use of NARRATIVE INFORMATION brings the Narrator, Jesus, and the Reader into even closer relationship

48 When it was noon, darkness came over the whole land until three in the afternoon. 34 At three o'clock Jesus cried out with a loud voice, "Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?"

49 When it was noon, darkness came over the whole land until three in the afternoon. 34 At three o'clock Jesus cried out with a loud voice, "Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?" which means, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?" 35 When some of the bystanders heard it, they said, "Listen, he is calling for Elijah."

50 When it was noon, darkness came over the whole land until three in the afternoon. 34 At three o'clock Jesus cried out with a loud voice, "Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?" which means, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?" 35 When some of the bystanders heard it, they said, "Listen, he is calling for Elijah."

51 … “does not claim to be history. It is not even referentially oriented. Rather, it is pragmatically or rhetorically oriented. It is not ‘about’ it characters; it is ‘about’ its reader. The Gospel writer’s chief concern is not the fate of either Jesus or the Twelve in the story but the fate of the reader outside the story.” Robert M. Fowler, Let the Reader Understand, page 50

52 Narrative Criticism Reader Response Criticism Let the reader understand…

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55 1.1 told from outset Baptism and Transfiguration Teaching Healings and other miracles CRUCIFIXION Resurrection Single explicit claim: What “Messianic Secret”?

56 Don’t tell about Jesus! Demons ordered to be silent: 1.34: “He would not permit the demons to speak, because they knew him.” People who were healed: 1:44 “See that you say nothing to anyone” Disciples: 8:30 He sternly ordered them not to tell anyone about him.

57 Duh-sciples 9:9-10 As they were coming down the mountain, he ordered them to tell no one about what they had seen, until after the Son of Man had risen from the dead. 10 So they kept the matter to themselves, questioning what this rising from the dead could mean. Ignorance about feedings, children Request to sit with Jesus in power Inability to watch and prayer Betrayal and abandonment

58 To you has been given the secret of the dominion of God...

59 Why the secrecy? Jesus didn’t want to reveal himself too soon and cause a premature end to his ministry. Jesus didn’t claim to be the Messiah but was confessed so afterwards >> It must have been a secret! (Wrede) To downplay aspects of Jesus' identity Mark did not find helpful (Achtemeier) The disciples serve as representatives of a ‘divine man’ Christology that focuses on miracles and power, a kind of theology of glory. Mark wants to replace it with a theology of the cross. (Weeden) Mark reflects the tension between Petrine and Pauline theological perspectives. (Goulder) It is a critique of the male disciples in contrast to the female followers. (Schussler-Fiorenza) Note that these solutions function at the story or historical level.

60 DISCOURSE We the readers STORY The characters in the narrative To whom is Jesus’ identity a secret? Jesus the secret Messiah Jesus the revealed Messiah

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62 Mark Do you commend these women or not?

63 Mark Was crucified? Has been crucified? Was raised? Has been raised? Is risen?

64 Mark μ ὴ ἐ κθαμβε ῖ σθε· Ἰ ησο ῦ ν ζητε ῖ τε τ ὸ ν Ναζαρην ὸ ν τ ὸ ν ἐ σταυρωμ έ νον· ἠ γ έ ρθη, ο ὐ κ ἔ στιν ὧ δε·

65 Mark

66 So they went out and So they went out and fled from the tomb, Mark

67 So they went out and fled from the tomb, for terror and amazement had seized them; Mark

68 So they went out and fled from the tomb, for terror and amazement had seized them; and they said nothing to anyone, for they were afraid. Is this the end? Mark

69 Failure of the disciples and even the women (worse than John the Baptist’s disciples )Failure of the disciples and even the women (worse than John the Baptist’s disciples ) Sense of an ending: a desire for structure and closureSense of an ending: a desire for structure and closure At the story level … but at the discourse level

70 “He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit”“He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit” As they were coming down the mountain, he ordered them to tell no one about what they had seen, until after the Son of Man had risen from the dead.As they were coming down the mountain, he ordered them to tell no one about what they had seen, until after the Son of Man had risen from the dead. Mark 13: … “the end is still to come.”Mark 13: … “the end is still to come.” “You will see him, just as he told you.”“You will see him, just as he told you.” MotivationMotivation Anticipation for as yet unfulfilled promisesAnticipation for as yet unfulfilled promises

71 DISCOURSE We the readers STORY The characters in the narrative Where is Jesus? JESUS JESUS

72 “What we call the beginning is often the end. And to make an end is to make a beginning. The end is where we start from.” T.S. Eliot There is no closure to the story. It is left open-ended, It begs for disclosure!

73 “You will see him, just as he told you.” Who is the “you”?

74 The Beginning The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus the Christ, Son of God…

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76 "John’s Gospel is the one, fine, true, and chief gospel, and is far, far to be preferred over the other three and placed high above them. Martin Luther MGVHoffman

77 2003/5 Director: Philip Saville Starring: Henry Ian Cusick, Daniel Kash and Christopher Plummer Available at Amazon, etc. for ~$12

78 Who?  Beloved Disciple = Author? Competitor to Peter?  Literary device (beloved disciple as reader)?  Lazarus? ,5,36: "Lord, he whom you love is ill."  John of Zebedee? ; 19.26; 20.2; 21.7,20: "One of his disciples -- the one whom Jesus loved -- was reclining next to him"  No explicit reference in the Gospel to John son of Zebedee (21.2)  Tradition of John and Mary (19.26)  Thomas (the Twin)?  Relation to (John) "the Elder" of Johannine Letters (2 John 1.1; 3 John 1.1 – perhaps a late editor?)  Relation to "John" of Revelation (Rev 1.1, 4, 9; 22.8)

79 When? Stages of composition Early: 40-70CE - Jewish Xns within synagogue Middle: 70-80CE - Xns and synagogue in tension Late: CE - Xns over against synagogue >> ~90CE Oral, unorganized collection of Jesus’ words and deeds Distinctive units shaped through decades of preaching/teaching (Signs Gospel?) Units organized consecutively Redactions Final editing: Add chs 15-17, 21

80 Where?  Traditional: Ephesus  Galilee? Syria? Alexandria?

81 Why?  "That you may come to believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God, and that through believing you may have life in his name" (20:31)

82 For whom? > The Johannine Community  Founded by one of Jesus’ disciples  Members driven from their synagogues for belief in Jesus (9:22–28; 12:42; 16:2)  Community’s defense is strong; internal ethic: "love one another"  "Outsiders" misunderstand Jesus (e.g., 2:19–22; 3:4; 4:11; 11:12; some believe)

83 Prologue (1:1-18) Wedding at Cana (2:1-12) Dialogue with Nicodemus (2:23—3:21) Samaritan Woman at the Well (4:1-42) Healing of a Sick Man at Pool of Bethesda (5:1-18) Bread of Life Discourse (6:22-65) [Woman caught in Adultery (7:53—8:11)] Giving Sight to a Man Born Blind (9:1-41) Raising of Lazarus (11:1-44) catholic-resources.org /John/Synoptic-Differences.htm

84 Washing of the Disciples’ Feet (13:1-20) Last Supper Discourses, including "Paraclete" & "Vine and Branches" The "Disciple Whom Jesus Loved" Great Prayer of Jesus (17:1-26) New Details at the Crucifixion (19:20-24, 26-28, 30-37, 39) Resurrection Appearance to Mary Magdalene alone Resurrection Appearance to Thomas (20:24-29) Resurrection Appearance at the Sea of Galilee

85  90% of John is NOT in Synoptic Gospels  Jesus’ long discourses focus on who he is Synoptic Gospels focus on God’s kingdom 5:19–47; 6:25–70; 7:14–52; 8:12–59; 10:1–18, etc.  Jesus is the messenger and the message  Symbolism I AM statements (water, bread, life, truth, vine, way, resurrection) Dualism: light/dark; life/death; truth/lies John and the Synoptics

86 SynopticsJohn Jesus’ ministry lasts about one year Jesus’ ministry spans three Passovers (2:13; 6:4; 11:55) Temple cleansing one week before Jesus’ death Temple cleansing at the beginning of Jesus’ ministry (2:13ff) Opponents of Jesus include Sadducees, Herodians, etc. Jesus’ opponents are usually called "the Jews" or "the world" Many miracles but few longer speeches Only a few "signs" but several long monologues and dialogues

87 SynopticsJohn Last Supper is the Passover Meal, and Jesus is crucified on the Day of Passover Last Supper is before the Passover (13:1; 18:28), and Jesus dies on the Preparation Day before Passover Love your neighbors; Love you enemies Love one another (focus within the community) Future Eschatology (Imminent) Realized Eschatology (Present) Main focus: "Kingdom of God"Main focus: "Eternal Life"

88  Introduction / Prologue:  Book of Signs:  Book of Glory:  Conclusion:  Epilogue:

89  Incarnation (1:1–19; 6:41)  Conflict (5:18; 6:60–71; 8:39–59)  Testimony (1:19–28; 4:39; 5:31–47; 8:12–20)  True Revelation (8:21–20)  "Lifted up" and "glorified" (8:21; 12:27–36)  Jesus reveals God because he is God  Love one another (action, NOT feeling)  The Paraclete/Spirit comforter (7:37–39) Key Themes in John

90 … κα ὶ ἡ ζω ὴ ἦ ν τ ὸ φ ῶ ς τ ῶ ν ἀ νθρ ώ πων· John

91  Pre-existence of Christ  Incarnation  Two natures—divine & human—of Christ

92

93 1. Story located in time of Jesus 2. Story located in Johannine community What happened in Jesus’ time parallels and informs what is happening in John’s time.

94 1. Story located in time of Jesus There was a relationship between John the Baptist and Jesus that may have been somewhat competitive 2. Story located in Johannine community There are disciples of John the Baptist who are somewhat in competition to the disciples of Jesus Jesus and John the Baptist

95 1. Story located in time of Jesus There was a contentious and hostile relationship between Jesus and the Jewish authorities 2. Story located in Johannine community There is a contentious and hostile relationship between the Johannine community and the Jewish authorities Jesus and Jewish Authorities

96  Specifically and only to the "Jewish leaders and authorities," rather than to the people as a whole  Only or mainly to the people living in the geographical territory of Judea, that is, "the Judeans"  To all members (or some or any in general) of the ethnic/religious group of people still called "Jews" today

97  Consider ways in which you can let Mark and John have their own ‘voice’  Show Mark and/or John videos  Bible Study focus (perhaps for Lent)  Use reading guide (cf. CrossMarks.com)

98 When preaching with MARK...  Remember centrality of the cross  Did Jesus need to die for me to preach this text?  Mark functions as persuasion not coercion  Try to establish narrative connections  How does the text at hand relate to the rest of the narrative?  How can I help the hearers to ‘invest’ in the text so that they identify with narrator / Jesus

99 When preaching with JOHN...  Think in terms of a developing and ‘thickening’ drama (a meditative spiral)  How does Jesus’ story parallel John’s story parallel our story?  BUT how will you deal with antagonistic view (Jews)?  BUT how will you deal with ‘insider’ focus?  How can the explicit and unambiguous nature of John’s account help confirm faith in Jesus?  Command and promise (Law and Gospel)

100 Preaching Mark and John in Year B Mark G. Vitalis Hoffman Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg CrossMarks.com


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