Presentation on theme: "Pennsylvania State Pastors’ Conference November 2011"— Presentation transcript:
1Pennsylvania State Pastors’ Conference 14-16 November 2011 Preaching Mark and John in Year BMark G. Vitalis HoffmanLutheran Theological Seminary at GettysburgCrossMarks.com“The Preacher” from Williamsburg Museum
2Outline Resources Overview of Lectionary Survey of Mark Survey of John Narrative CriticismSurvey of John
4Online and Digital Resources Textweek.comWorkingPreacher.orgON Scripture:ELCA Year B:United Methodist RCL:Christian Resource Institute:Narrative Lectionary:
5Online and Digital Resources Revised Common LectionaryBible SoftwareAccordance – Free at:BibleWorks – Free module: bibleworks.oldinthenew.orgLogos – Free in Logos4 (includes RC, RCL, UM Lectionaries; $5 for Logos3)Downloadable for Outlook, iPhone, Google, PalmFree: ($7.50 at UCC site)
6Advent starts November27 Christmas Day is a Sunday TRANSFIG-URATIONPENT-ECOSTCHRIST KINGEPIPHANYBAPTISMHOLY TRINITYASHWED.EASTERHOLY WEEKADVENTEASTERPENTECOSTXMASEPIPHANYLENTAdvent starts November27Christmas Day is a SundayJanuary 1 is a SundayEpiphany = January 6 is a FridayBaptism of Lord = Sunday, Jan. 8Transfiguration = February 19Ash Wednesday = February 22Palm/Passion Sunday = April 1Easter = April 8Pentecost = May 27Holy Trinity = June 3(>> skip Proper 4 / Ord 10)Reformation = October 28All Saints = November 4Thanksgiving = Nov 22Christ the King = Nov 25
71st SUNDAY AFTER CHRISTMAS TRANSFIG-URATIONPENT-ECOSTCHRIST KINGEPIPHANYBAPTISMHOLY TRINITYASHWED.EASTERHOLY WEEKADVENTEASTERPENTECOSTXMASEPIPHANYLENTADVENTMark 13:24-37 – Keep awake!Mark 1:1-8 – John the BaptistJohn 1:6-8, John the BaptistLuke 1: AnnunciationCHRISTMAS EVELuke 2:1-20CHRISTMAS DAYJohn 1:1-141st SUNDAY AFTER CHRISTMASLuke 2: Simeon & Anna
8EPIPHANY 2011-2012 Baptism: Mark 1:4-11 TRANSFIG-URATIONPENT-ECOSTCHRIST KINGEPIPHANYBAPTISMHOLY TRINITYASHWED.EASTERHOLY WEEKADVENTEASTERPENTECOSTXMASEPIPHANYLENTEPIPHANY(Day: Matthew 2:1-12 – Wise Men)Baptism: Mark 1:4-11John 1:43-51 – Philip & NathanielMark 1:14-20 – Jesus begins ministryMark 1:21-28 – Man w/ unclean spiritMark 1:29-39 – Healing and preachingMark 1:40-45 – Healing a leperMark 2:1-12 – Forgiveness/Healing of paralyticMark 2:13-22 – Eating with sinnersMark 2:23-3:6 – ‘Working‘ and healing on SabbathTransfiguration: Mark 9:2-9
9LENT 2011-2012 Mark 1:9-15 – Baptism, Wilderness, Preaching TRANSFIG-URATIONPENT-ECOSTCHRIST KINGEPIPHANYBAPTISMHOLY TRINITYASHWED.EASTERHOLY WEEKADVENTEASTERPENTECOSTXMASEPIPHANYLENTLENTMark 1:9-15 – Baptism, Wilderness, PreachingMark 8: Peter‘s Confession or Mark 9:2-9 - TransfigurationJohn 2:13-22 – Cleansing the TempleJohn 3: NicodemusJohn 12: Jesus speaks about his deathPalm SundayMark 11:1-11 or John 12:12-16Passion SundayMark 14:1-15:47 or Mark 15:1-39, (40-47)
10HOLY WEEK 2011-2012 M: John 12:1-11 - Anointing TRANSFIG-URATIONPENT-ECOSTCHRIST KINGEPIPHANYBAPTISMHOLY TRINITYASHWED.EASTERHOLY WEEKADVENTEASTERPENTECOSTXMASEPIPHANYLENTHOLY WEEKM: John 12: AnointingT: John 12:20-36 – Re: Jesus’ deathW: John 13:21-32 – Foretells betrayalTh: John 13:1-17, 31b-35 – Wash feet; Love!F: John 18:1-19:42 - PassionSat: Matthew 27: Burial or John 19: Burial
11EASTER 2011-2012 Day: John 20:1-18 or Mark 16:1-8 TRANSFIG-URATIONPENT-ECOSTCHRIST KINGEPIPHANYBAPTISMHOLY TRINITYASHWED.EASTERHOLY WEEKADVENTEASTERPENTECOSTXMASEPIPHANYLENTEASTERDay: John 20:1-18or Mark 16:1-8John 20:19-31 – Unbelieving ThomasLuke 24:36b-48 – Road to EmmausJohn 10:11-18 – Good ShepherdJohn 15:1-8 – True VineJohn 15:9-17 – Love commandAscension: Luke 24:44-53John 17: Prayer for disciples
12TRANSFIG-URATIONPENT-ECOSTCHRIST KINGEPIPHANYBAPTISMHOLY TRINITYASHWED.EASTERHOLY WEEKADVENTEASTERPENTECOSTXMASEPIPHANYLENTPENTECOSTPentecost: John 15:26-27,16:4b-15 – Advocate/Spirit’s comingHoly Trinity: John 3: NicodemusMark 2:23-3:6 – ‘Working’ and healing on SabbathMark 3:20-35 – Divided kingdom; true familyMark 4:26-34 – Parables of growing seed & mustard seedMark 4:35-41 – Calms storm on seaMark 5:21-43 – Girl and woman restoredMark 6:1-13 – Rejection at Nazareth; Mission of 12Mark 6:14-29 – Death of John the BaptistMark 6:30-34, – Teaching & healing (omit 5000 fed & walk on water)#s are Proper #s; Add 5 for Lectionary #
13PENTECOST 2011-2012 John 6:1-21 – Feeding 5000, walk on water TRANSFIG-URATIONPENT-ECOSTCHRIST KINGEPIPHANYBAPTISMHOLY TRINITYASHWED.EASTERHOLY WEEKADVENTEASTERPENTECOSTXMASEPIPHANYLENTPENTECOSTJohn 6:1-21 – Feeding 5000, walk on waterJohn 6: Bread IJohn 6:35, Bread IIJohn 6: Bread IIIJohn 6: Bread IVMark 7:1-8, 14-15, – True purityMark 7:24-37 – Syrophoencian woman; deaf manMark 8:27-38 – Peter‘s confession; passion; cross-bearingMark 9:30-37 – Passion; who is greatest#s are Proper #s; Add 5 for Lectionary #
14PENTECOST 2011-2012 Mark 9:38-50 - Another exorcist; temptations TRANSFIG-URATIONPENT-ECOSTCHRIST KINGEPIPHANYBAPTISMHOLY TRINITYASHWED.EASTERHOLY WEEKADVENTEASTERPENTECOSTXMASEPIPHANYLENTPENTECOSTMark 9: Another exorcist; temptationsMark 10:2-16 – On divorce; welcoming childrenMark 10:17-31 – Rich manMark 10:35-45 – James & John‘s request >< JesusMark 10:46-52 – Blind BartimaeusMark 12:28-34 – Greatest commandMark 12:38-44 – Widow‘s two coinsMark 13:1-8 – Sign of the endChrist the King: John 18:33-37 – Jesus before Pilate#s are Proper #s; Add 5 for Lectionary #
15TRANSFIG-URATIONPENT-ECOSTCHRIST KINGEPIPHANYBAPTISMHOLY TRINITYASHWED.EASTERHOLY WEEKADVENTEASTERPENTECOSTXMASEPIPHANYLENTMark Luke Mark Mark Mark/John John – Mark... John Mark JohnJohn John John John Jn, LkLuke Luke Mark John...
17Available at: selectlearning.org $50 includes study guide
18Who was “Mark”?Traditional Author: John Mark of Acts 12:12-25; 15:37; Col 4:10; Phlm 1:24; 1Pet 5:13 (?); connected with Barnabas and PeterLocation: Rome… but maybe Decapolis, Syria, or AlexandriaDate: Late 60’s-Early 70’s – i.e., around time of Jewish War
19The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus the Christ, Son of God… Mark 1.1Ἀρχὴ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ [υἱοῦ θεοῦ].The beginning of the Gospel ofJesus the Christ, Son of God…What is assumed about you the reader with this opening statement?That you will have the opportunity to read/hear itThat you can understand the Greek in which it was writtenThat you have some recognition of who Jesus is?That you understand something about the titles “Christ” (and in Mk it is a title and NOT a name) and “Son of God”What is meant by the “beginning of the Gospel”? The beginning of the written account? A reference to John the Baptist’s ministry? A reference to Jesus’ earthly ministry?What is assumed about the reader with this opening statement?
20MarkIn those days Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan.
21MarkAnd just as he was coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens torn apart and the Spirit descending like a dove on him.
22σχιζομένους τοὺς οὐρανούς MarkAnd just as he was coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens torn apart and the Spirit descending like a dove on him.Note the use of σχιζωσχιζομένους τοὺς οὐρανούς
23τὸ πνεῦμα ὡς περιστερὰν καταβαῖνον εἰς αὐτόν· MarkAnd just as he was coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens torn apart and the Spirit descending like a dove on/into him.Into ? himτὸ πνεῦμα ὡς περιστερὰν καταβαῖνον εἰς αὐτόν·
24"You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased." MarkAnd a voice came from heaven,"You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased."
25Mark14 Now after John was arrested, Jesus came to Galilee, proclaiming the good news of God, 15 and saying,"The time is fulfilled,and the dominion of God has come near;repent,and believe in the good news."
26Mark 8.27ff.27 Jesus went on with his disciples to the villages of Caesarea Philippi; and on the way he asked his disciples, "Who do people say that I am?"28 And they answered him, "John the Baptist; and others, Elijah; and still others, one of the prophets."29 He asked them, "But who do you say that I am?" Peter answered him, "You are the Messiah."30 And he sternly ordered them not to tell anyone about him. 31 Then he began to teach them that the Son of Man must undergo great suffering, and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again.
27The Transfiguration of Jesus Mark 9.1-87Then a cloud overshadowed them, and from the cloud there came a voice, “This is my Son, the Beloved; listen to him!” 8Suddenly when they looked around, they saw no one with them any more, but only Jesus.
28The Crucifixion of Jesus Mark Then Jesus gave a loud cry and breathed his last.ex-spiritedὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἀφεὶς φωνὴν μεγάλην ἐξέπνευσεν
29The Crucifixion of Jesus Mark Then Jesus gave a loud cry and breathed his last. And the curtain of the temple was torn in two, from top to bottom.τὸ καταπέτασμα τοῦ ναοῦ ἐσχίσθη
30The Crucifixion of Jesus MarkNow when the centurion, who stood facing him, saw that in this way he breathed his last, he said,"Truly this man was God's Son!"
31the curtain of the temple was torn in two Jesus, the Son of Godthe curtain of the temple was torn in twothe heavens torn apart
32… the Spirit descended… into him Jesus, the Son of God… the Spirit descended… into him… and he expired
33Jesus, the Son of God “This is my Son, the Beloved; listen to him!” “You are the Messiah.”“This is my Son, the Beloved; listen to him!”"You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased.""Truly this man was God's Son!"
34Jesus, the Son of God What did John the Baptist see? What did the disciples see?What did the centurion see?
35Were you there when they crucified my Lord…? What did you see?Were you there when they crucified my Lord…?
36Narrative Criticism see Mark Allan Powell What Is Narrative Criticism? Introducing the NT 2.7
37Q Historical Jesus Oral Traditions of Early Church Form Criticism Source CriticismGospel of MarkRedaction CriticismGospel of LukeGospel of MatthewManuscript TraditionsTextual Criticism
38Oral Traditions of Early Church Historical JesusOral Traditions of Early ChurchForm CriticismQSource CriticismGospel of MarkRedaction CriticismGospel of LukeGospel of Matthew
39Oral Traditions of Early Church Historical JesusLiterary CriticismOral Traditions of Early ChurchQGospel of MarkGospel of LukeGospel of MatthewFocus on finished form of textEmphasis on unity of text as a wholeNarrative Criticism
43Discourse Story How the story is told What is said How it affects the hearerStoryWhat is saidCharacters, events, places
44Discourse Story How the story is told What is said How it affects the hearerAttention to temporal experience of readingStoryWhat is saidCharacters, events, placesAttention to how story turns out
45In the Gospel of MarkThe rhetorical / persuasive techniques of the narrative creates opportunities for the reader to ‘invest’ in the story That is, the reader is being persuaded to believe that the story is true
46In the Gospel of Mark Point of view of Narrator (Mark) = Point of view of Jesus= Point of view of ReaderIf we are aware of how the story is being told, ie, aware of what is happening at the discourse level, we realize that the point of view of the narrator is the point of view of Jesus in the story. The author tells us things about Jesus that only Jesus knows. What is also happening, however, is that by sharing the author’s point of view, it also becomes our point of view. We find ourselves, therefore, more and more aligned with and loyal to Jesus… and this is a powerful way of building faith!
47In the Gospel of MarkThe use of NARRATIVE INFORMATION brings the Narrator, Jesus, and the Reader into even closer relationshipBecause we know things—or have been led to believe things—that often the characters in the story do not, we have a privileged position, a position that draws us to closer to an identification with Jesus.
48MarkWhen it was noon, darkness came over the whole land until three in the afternoon.34 At three o'clock Jesus cried out with a loud voice,"Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?"The Gospel has been written and the reader reading in Greek. Jesus is dying. He speaks his final words, but it is a phrase in Aramaic. What does it mean?
49MarkWhen it was noon, darkness came over the whole land until three in the afternoon.34 At three o'clock Jesus cried out with a loud voice,"Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?"which means,"My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"35 When some of the bystanders heard it, they said, "Listen, he is calling for Elijah."Will you make the same mistake as some of the bystanders?
50MarkWhen it was noon, darkness came over the whole land until three in the afternoon.34 At three o'clock Jesus cried out with a loud voice,"Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?"which means,"My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"35 When some of the bystanders heard it, they said, "Listen, he is calling for Elijah."You the reader alone have been given the meaning so as not to make the mistake of the others.
51Robert M. Fowler, Let the Reader Understand, page 50 The Gospel of Mark… “does not claim to be history. It is not even referentially oriented. Rather, it is pragmatically or rhetorically oriented. It is not ‘about’ it characters; it is ‘about’ its reader. The Gospel writer’s chief concern is not the fate of either Jesus or the Twelve in the story but the fate of the reader outside the story.”Robert M. Fowler, Let the Reader Understand, page 50
52Reader Response Criticism Let the reader understand… Narrative CriticismReader Response CriticismLet the reader understand…The phrase is from Mark in a moment when the author turns and directly addresses the reader.
55What do we know from Mark? Jesus is the Christ the Son of God 1.1 told from outsetBaptism and TransfigurationTeachingHealings and other miraclesCRUCIFIXIONResurrectionSingle explicit claim: 15.62What “Messianic Secret”?
56The Messianic Secret in Mark Don’t tell about Jesus!Demons ordered to be silent: 1.34: “He would not permit the demons to speak, because they knew him.”People who were healed: 1:44 “See that you say nothing to anyone”Disciples: 8:30 He sternly ordered them not to tell anyone about him.
57The Messianic Secret in Mark Duh-sciples9:9-10 As they were coming down the mountain, he ordered them to tell no one about what they had seen, until after the Son of Man had risen from the dead So they kept the matter to themselves, questioning what this rising from the dead could mean.Ignorance about feedings, childrenRequest to sit with Jesus in powerInability to watch and prayerBetrayal and abandonment
58To you has been given the secret of the dominion of God... Parables used to conceal the truth Mark Parable of the Sower and the SeedTo you has been given the secret of the dominion of God...An exercise in the secret/revealed nature of Jesus and the dominion of God.(Sower image by David Hetland. Used with permission. )
59The Messianic Secret in Mark Why the secrecy?Jesus didn’t want to reveal himself too soon and cause a premature end to his ministry.Jesus didn’t claim to be the Messiah but was confessed so afterwards >> It must have been a secret! (Wrede)To downplay aspects of Jesus' identity Mark did not find helpful (Achtemeier)The disciples serve as representatives of a ‘divine man’ Christology that focuses on miracles and power, a kind of theology of glory. Mark wants to replace it with a theology of the cross. (Weeden)Mark reflects the tension between Petrine and Pauline theological perspectives. (Goulder)It is a critique of the male disciples in contrast to the female followers. (Schussler-Fiorenza)Note that these solutions function at the story or historical level.The “Messianic Secret” in Mark has long been a source of debate among scholars. The issue revolves around Jesus’ repeated commands that he not be made known, that people and demons not report what he has done, the secretive commands and passion predictions, the disciples inability to understand what Jesus is about, etc. BUT, note that this ‘secret’ is only functioning at the story level. At the discourse level, there is absolutely no secret at all about Jesus’ identity. We’ve been told it from the very first verse!
60The Messianic Secret in Mark DISCOURSE We the readersJesus the revealed MessiahJesus the secret MessiahThe “Messianic Secret” in Mark has long been a source of debate among scholars. The issue revolves around Jesus’ repeated commands that he not be made known, that people and demons not report what he has done, the secretive commands and passion predictions, the disciples inability to understand what Jesus is about, etc. BUT, note that this ‘secret’ is only functioning at the story level. At the discourse level, there is absolutely no secret at all about Jesus’ identity. We’ve been told it from the very first verse!STORY The characters in the narrativeTo whom is Jesus’ identity a secret?
62Do you commend these women or not? MarkWhen the sabbath was over, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices, so that they might go and anoint him. 2 And very early on the first day of the week, when the sun had risen, they went to the tomb. 3 They had been saying to one another, "Who will roll away the stone for us from the entrance to the tomb?"The reader may well be critical of the women. Three times Jesus foretold his death and resurrection. In 14.3ff, Jesus had already been anointed for his burial. In 14.28, Jesus had indicated that he would go ahead of them to Galilee. And now they go to the tomb without a clue how they will get in!By the way, who is Mary the mother of James? She is none other than Jesus’ mother! (See 6.3) Why is she so obliquely cited here?Do you commend these women or not?
63Mark4 When they looked up, they saw that the stone, which was very large, had already been rolled back. 5 As they entered the tomb, they saw a young man, dressed in a white robe, sitting on the right side; and they were alarmed. 6 But he said to them, “Do not be alarmed; you are looking for Jesus of Nazareth, the one who ______ crucified. He ______ ; he is not here. Look, there is the place they laid him.Was crucified?Has been crucified?Was raised?Has been raised?Is risen?
64Markμὴ ἐκθαμβεῖσθε· Ἰησοῦν ζητεῖτε τὸν Ναζαρηνὸν τὸν ἐσταυρωμένον· ἠγέρθη, οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε·"Do not be alarmed; you are looking for Jesus of Nazareth, the one who has been crucified. He was raised; he is not here.Note that “has been crucified” is in the perfect tense; “was raised” is in the aorist.Most translations like to express it as, “Jesus was crucified and has been raised.”Mark, however, is indicating that the important part of the present reality is that Jesus is the Crucified One who was raised. (not the Risen One who was crucified)For Mark, the focus is always on the cross.
65Mark7 But go, tell his disciples and Peter that he is going ahead of you to Galilee; there you will see him, just as he told you."
66So they went out and fled from the tomb, MarkSo they went out and fled from the tomb,
67MarkSo they went out and fled from the tomb, for terror and amazement had seized them;
68and they said nothing to anyone, for they were afraid. MarkSo they went out and fled from the tomb, for terror and amazement had seized them;and they said nothing to anyone, for they were afraid.Is this the end?
69Disappointment... At the story level … but at the discourse level Failure of the disciples and even the women (worse than John the Baptist’s disciples )Sense of an ending: a desire for structure and closureAt the story level… but at the discourse level
70… and Hope Motivation Anticipation for as yet unfulfilled promises “He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit”As they were coming down the mountain, he ordered them to tell no one about what they had seen, until after the Son of Man had risen from the dead.Mark 13: … “the end is still to come.”“You will see him, just as he told you.”
71The Resurrection of Jesus DISCOURSE We the readersJESUSJESUS1) In the STORY, where is Jesus located?2) In the DISCOURSE, where is Jesus located? >> Juel: Jesus is on the loose!STORY The characters in the narrativeWhere is Jesus?
72The Resurrection of Jesus “What we call the beginning is often the end. And to make an end is to make a beginning. The end is where we start from.”T.S. EliotIn the End-The Beginning: The Life of Hope by Jurgen MoltmannThere is no closure to the story.It is left open-ended,It begs for disclosure!
73The Resurrection of Jesus “You will see him,just as he told you.”You the readerWho is the “you”?
74The End The Beginning The beginning of the Gospel of And now we understand why it says in 1.1 that this is “The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, Son of God”!The beginning of the Gospel ofJesus the Christ, Son of God…
76The Gospel according to JOHN "John’s Gospel is the one, fine, true, and chief gospel, and is far, far to be preferred over the other three and placed high above them.Martin LutherMGVHoffman
772003/5Director: Philip SavilleStarring: Henry Ian Cusick, Daniel Kash and Christopher PlummerAvailable at Amazon, etc. for ~$12
78The Gospel according to John Who?Beloved Disciple = Author? Competitor to Peter?Literary device (beloved disciple as reader)?Lazarus? ,5,36: "Lord, he whom you love is ill."John of Zebedee? ; 19.26; 20.2; 21.7,20: "One of his disciples -- the one whom Jesus loved -- was reclining next to him"No explicit reference in the Gospel to John son of Zebedee (21.2)Tradition of John and Mary (19.26)Thomas (the Twin)?Relation to (John) "the Elder" of Johannine Letters (2 John 1.1; 3 John 1.1 – perhaps a late editor?)Relation to "John" of Revelation (Rev 1.1, 4, 9; 22.8)
79The Gospel according to John When? Stages of compositionEarly: 40-70CE - Jewish Xns within synagogueMiddle: 70-80CE - Xns and synagogue in tensionLate: CE - Xns over against synagogue>> ~90CEOral, unorganized collection of Jesus’ words and deedsDistinctive units shapedthrough decades ofpreaching/teaching(Signs Gospel?)Units organized consecutivelyRedactionsFinal editing:Add chs 15-17, 21
80The Gospel according to John Where?Traditional: EphesusGalilee? Syria? Alexandria?
81The Gospel according to John Why?"That you may come to believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God, and that through believing you may have life in his name" (20:31)
82The Gospel according to John For whom? > The Johannine CommunityFounded by one of Jesus’ disciplesMembers driven from their synagogues for belief in Jesus (9:22–28; 12:42; 16:2)Community’s defense is strong; internal ethic: "love one another""Outsiders" misunderstand Jesus (e.g., 2:19–22; 3:4; 4:11; 11:12; some believe)
83John and the Synoptics Material ONLY in John Prologue (1:1-18)Wedding at Cana (2:1-12)Dialogue with Nicodemus (2:23—3:21)Samaritan Woman at the Well (4:1-42)Healing of a Sick Man at Pool of Bethesda (5:1-18)Bread of Life Discourse (6:22-65)[Woman caught in Adultery (7:53—8:11)]Giving Sight to a Man Born Blind (9:1-41)Raising of Lazarus (11:1-44)
84John and the Synoptics Material ONLY in John Washing of the Disciples’ Feet (13:1-20)Last Supper Discourses, including "Paraclete" & "Vine and Branches" The "Disciple Whom Jesus Loved"Great Prayer of Jesus (17:1-26)New Details at the Crucifixion (19:20-24, 26-28, 30-37, 39)Resurrection Appearance to Mary Magdalene aloneResurrection Appearance to Thomas (20:24-29)Resurrection Appearance at the Sea of Galilee
85John and the Synoptics 90% of John is NOT in Synoptic Gospels Jesus’ long discourses focus on who he isSynoptic Gospels focus on God’s kingdom5:19–47; 6:25–70; 7:14–52; 8:12–59; 10:1–18, etc.Jesus is the messenger and the messageSymbolismI AM statements (water, bread, life, truth, vine, way, resurrection)Dualism: light/dark; life/death; truth/liesFrom Powell’s introducingnt.com
86John and the Synoptics Material different in John compared to Synoptics Jesus’ ministry lasts about one yearJesus’ ministry spans three Passovers (2:13; 6:4; 11:55)Temple cleansing one week before Jesus’ deathTemple cleansing at the beginning of Jesus’ ministry (2:13ff)Opponents of Jesus include Sadducees, Herodians, etc.Jesus’ opponents are usually called "the Jews" or "the world"Many miracles but few longer speechesOnly a few "signs" but several long monologues and dialogues
87John and the Synoptics Material different in John compared to Synoptics Last Supper is the Passover Meal, and Jesus is crucified on the Day of PassoverLast Supper is before the Passover (13:1; 18:28), and Jesus dies on the Preparation Day before PassoverLove your neighbors; Love you enemiesLove one another (focus within the community)Future Eschatology (Imminent) Realized Eschatology (Present)Main focus: "Kingdom of God"Main focus: "Eternal Life"
88Outline of John Introduction / Prologue: 1.1-18 Book of Signs:Book of Glory:Conclusion:Epilogue:
89Key Themes in John Incarnation (1:1–19; 6:41) Conflict (5:18; 6:60–71; 8:39–59)Testimony (1:19–28; 4:39; 5:31–47; 8:12–20)True Revelation (8:21–20)"Lifted up" and "glorified" (8:21; 12:27–36)Jesus reveals God because he is GodLove one another (action, NOT feeling)The Paraclete/Spirit comforter (7:37–39)From Powell’s introducingnt.com
91John 1.1-18 Pre-existence of Christ Incarnation Two natures—divine & human—of Christ
92…To all who received him, who believed in his name, he gave power to become children of God. (1.12) Verse 12 is the chiastic center of vv 1-18cf
93John as a Two-Level Story 1. Story located in time of Jesus2. Story located in Johannine communityWhat happened in Jesus’ time parallels and informs what is happening in John’s time.
94John as a Two-Level Story Jesus and John the Baptist1. Story located in time of Jesus There was a relationship between John the Baptist and Jesus that may have been somewhat competitive2. Story located in Johannine community There are disciples of John the Baptist who are somewhat in competition to the disciples of Jesus
95John as a Two-Level Story Jesus and Jewish Authorities1. Story located in time of Jesus There was a contentious and hostile relationship between Jesus and the Jewish authorities2. Story located in Johannine community There is a contentious and hostile relationship between the Johannine community and the Jewish authorities
96The "Jews" in JohnSpecifically and only to the "Jewish leaders and authorities," rather than to the people as a wholeOnly or mainly to the people living in the geographical territory of Judea, that is, "the Judeans"To all members (or some or any in general) of the ethnic/religious group of people still called "Jews" today
97What does this all mean for preaching? Consider ways in which you can let Mark and John have their own ‘voice’Show Mark and/or John videosBible Study focus (perhaps for Lent)Use reading guide (cf. CrossMarks.com)
98What does this all mean for preaching? When preaching with MARK...Remember centrality of the crossDid Jesus need to die for me to preach this text?Mark functions as persuasion not coercionTry to establish narrative connectionsHow does the text at hand relate to the rest of the narrative?How can I help the hearers to ‘invest’ in the text so that they identify with narrator / Jesus
99What does this all mean for preaching? When preaching with JOHN...Think in terms of a developing and ‘thickening’ drama (a meditative spiral)How does Jesus’ story parallel John’s story parallel our story?BUT how will you deal with antagonistic view (Jews)?BUT how will you deal with ‘insider’ focus?How can the explicit and unambiguous nature of John’s account help confirm faith in Jesus?Command and promise (Law and Gospel)
100Pennsylvania State Pastors’ Conference 14-16 November 2011 Preaching Mark and John in Year BMark G. Vitalis HoffmanLutheran Theological Seminary at GettysburgCrossMarks.com“The Preacher” from Williamsburg Museum