Presentation on theme: "11. 5 The Legacy of the War Objectives: A"— Presentation transcript:
111. 5 The Legacy of the War Objectives: A 11.5 The Legacy of the War Objectives: A. What were the economic, political, military and social consequences of the war? B. Why is the Civil War considered a “turning point”?
2Second Inaugural Address (Prelude to Reconstruction) Read Lincoln’s second inaugural address:Answer the following:What is the tone of the address?Who is Lincoln addressing?What strikes you most about the address?How does it compare to political speeches you have heard before?In light if this document, why do some say that Lincoln’s death was a tragedy for the South?
3Lincoln's SECOND INAUGURAL ADDRESS (ABRIDGED) If we shall suppose that American slavery is one of those offenses which, in the providence of God, must needs come, but which, having continued through His appointed time, He now wills to remove, and that He gives to both North and South this terrible war as the woe due to those by whom the offense came, shall we discern therein any departure from those divine attributes which the believers in a living God always ascribe to Him? Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondsman's two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said "the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether."With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.
5ASSASSINATION OF LINCOLN Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865, five days after Lee’s surrenderFirst president to be assassinated in US history7 million Americans, 1/3 of North’s population, viewed funeral train
6Title: Assassination of President Lincoln at Ford's Theatre Year: 1865 Creator: H.H. Lloyd & Co.
7WHY DID THE SOUTH”S STRATEGY FAIL? - ANALYSIS Northern Economy outperforms the South’sNorth is more industrializedNorth has more workersNorth has more transportationNorthern states stay united; Lincoln is able to control dissentNorth has more populationPeople to workMen to fight
8WHY DID THE SOUTH”S STRATEGY FAIL? - ANALYSIS Uncle Tom’s Cabin moves people of England and France to oppose their governments joining the South and breaking the Union blockade/Anaconda Plan.Britain relies on Union grain shipments to off-set shortages (King Corn defeats King Cotton)Trent and Alabama crises: these violations of neutrality threaten war with Britain/Canada. Diplomacy succeeds and Britain pays damages.Confederacy has same problems as Articles of Confederation – weak central governmentJefferson Davis not popular, threatened w/ impeachment
9ECONOMIC CHANGES IN THE NORTH: Economy booms and grows Institutes income tax for 1st timeConstruction of national railroad systemCreation of national banksInstituted the “greenback” currency179% inflation rate in 1865IN THE SOUTH:Economic collapsePercentage of national wealth drops from 30 to 12%Income is 2/5 of Northern average9,000% inflation rate at end of war!!!
10SOCIAL and POLITICAL COSTS and CHANGE Nullification and Secession now defunct,BUT states’ rights STILL VERY MUCH ALIVE.Emancipation and Thirteenth Amendment end slaveryPower of the federal government greatly expandedRepublican democracy proven viable to worldOver 600,000 deadOver 1,000,000 woundedOver 3,000,000 men in uniform for 4 years (=10% of total population)$15 billion direct costs (higher indirect costs)War debt and caring for wounded veterans consumes the federal budget for the next several decades
11MILITARY CHANGES Invention of rifle and minié ball deadlier wars Cavalry becomes obsoleteEnd of massed infantry charges (Pickett’s charge)Beginning of trench warfareEnd of wooden ships – age of ironclads begins
12FINAL ANALYSIS Slavery ended 600,000 dead 1,000,000 wounded $15 billion direct costs (higher indirect costs)Nullification and Secession now defunctRepublican democracy proven viable to world
13MEANS TO AN END?During the war Lincoln violated the Constitutional limits on his powers:Initiated blockade w/o advice/consent of CongressIncreased size of army w/o advice/consent of CongressAppropriated funds w/o advice/consent of CongressSuspended habeas corpus“supervised” voting in border states (intimidation)Violated freedom of the pressUses total war against South? Will it jeopardize the peace?Also, the DRAFT: Was it necessary? Just?
14Walt Whitman (1819–1892). Leaves of Grass. 1900. 193. O Captain! My Captain!1O CAPTAIN! my Captain! our fearful trip is done;The ship has weather’d every rack, the prize we sought is won;The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting,While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring:But O heart! heart! heart!O the bleeding drops of red,Where on the deck my Captain lies,Fallen cold and dead.
152O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells;Rise up—for you the flag is flung—for you the bugle trills; 10For you bouquets and ribbon’d wreaths—for you the shores a-crowding;For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning;Here Captain! dear father!This arm beneath your head;It is some dream that on the deck, 15You’ve fallen cold and dead.
16Walt Whitman (1819–1892). Leaves of Grass. 1900. 3My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still;My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will;The ship is anchor’d safe and sound, its voyage closed and done;From fearful trip, the victor ship, comes in with object won; 20Exult, O shores, and ring, O bells!But I, with mournful tread,Walk the deck my Captain lies,Fallen cold and dead.
17THINGS TO STUDY:IDENTIFICATIONSDATES: EMANCIPATION, Ft. SUMTER, MAJOR BATTLES, LEE’S SURRENDER, LINCOLN’S ASSASSINATIONQUESTIONS AT BEGINNING OF CHAPTER NOTESNOTESTIMELINEESSAY TOPICS:A. EMANCIPATION (CHART) & ROLE OF AFRICAN-AMERICANSB. KEY TURNING POINTSC. NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN STRATEGIES…WHAT THEY WERE, WHY FAILED/WHY SUCCEEDED?D. COMPARE/CONTRAST GENERALS