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11.5 The Legacy of the War Objectives: A. What were the economic, political, military and social consequences of the war? B. Why is the Civil War considered.

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Presentation on theme: "11.5 The Legacy of the War Objectives: A. What were the economic, political, military and social consequences of the war? B. Why is the Civil War considered."— Presentation transcript:

1 11.5 The Legacy of the War Objectives: A. What were the economic, political, military and social consequences of the war? B. Why is the Civil War considered a “turning point”?

2 Second Inaugural Address (Prelude to Reconstruction) Read Lincoln’s second inaugural address: Answer the following: What is the tone of the address? Who is Lincoln addressing? What strikes you most about the address? How does it compare to political speeches you have heard before? In light if this document, why do some say that Lincoln’s death was a tragedy for the South?

3 Lincoln's SECOND INAUGURAL ADDRESS (ABRIDGED) If we shall suppose that American slavery is one of those offenses which, in the providence of God, must needs come, but which, having continued through His appointed time, He now wills to remove, and that He gives to both North and South this terrible war as the woe due to those by whom the offense came, shall we discern therein any departure from those divine attributes which the believers in a living God always ascribe to Him? Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondsman's two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said "the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether." With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.

4 Lee with his son after the surrender After opposing secession, General Robert E. Lee accepted a commission in the Confederate army and commanded the Army of Northern Virginia for most of the war. Photographer Mathew Brady took this picture of Lee (center), his son Major General G.W.C. Lee (left), and his aide Colonel Walter Taylor (right) eight days after Lee's surrender to General Grant. The forlorn expression on the general's face vividly demonstrates the agony of defeat. (Library of Congress) Lee with his son after the surrender Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

5 ASSASSINATION OF LINCOLN Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865, five days after Lee’s surrender First president to be assassinated in US history 7 million Americans, 1/3 of North’s population, viewed funeral train

6 Title: Assassination of President Lincoln at Ford's Theatre Year: 1865Creator: H.H. Lloyd & Co.

7 WHY DID THE SOUTH”S STRATEGY FAIL? - ANALYSIS Northern Economy outperforms the South’s – North is more industrialized – North has more workers – North has more transportation Northern states stay united; Lincoln is able to control dissent North has more population – People to work – Men to fight

8 WHY DID THE SOUTH”S STRATEGY FAIL? - ANALYSIS Uncle Tom’s Cabin moves people of England and France to oppose their governments joining the South and breaking the Union blockade/Anaconda Plan. Britain relies on Union grain shipments to off-set shortages (King Corn defeats King Cotton) Trent and Alabama crises: these violations of neutrality threaten war with Britain/Canada. Diplomacy succeeds and Britain pays damages. Confederacy has same problems as Articles of Confederation – weak central government Jefferson Davis not popular, threatened w/ impeachment

9 ECONOMIC CHANGES IN THE NORTH: Economy booms and grows Institutes income tax for 1 st time Construction of national railroad system Creation of national banks Instituted the “greenback” currency 179% inflation rate in 1865 IN THE SOUTH: Economic collapse Percentage of national wealth drops from 30 to 12% Income is 2/5 of Northern average 9,000% inflation rate at end of war!!!

10 SOCIAL and POLITICAL COSTS and CHANGE Nullification and Secession now defunct, BUT states’ rights STILL VERY MUCH ALIVE. Emancipation and Thirteenth Amendment end slavery Power of the federal government greatly expanded Republican democracy proven viable to world Over 600,000 dead Over 1,000,000 wounded Over 3,000,000 men in uniform for 4 years (=10% of total population) $15 billion direct costs (higher indirect costs) War debt and caring for wounded veterans consumes the federal budget for the next several decades

11 MILITARY CHANGES Invention of rifle and minié ball  deadlier wars Cavalry becomes obsolete End of massed infantry charges (Pickett’s charge) Beginning of trench warfare End of wooden ships – age of ironclads begins

12 FINAL ANALYSIS Slavery ended 600,000 dead 1,000,000 wounded $15 billion direct costs (higher indirect costs) Nullification and Secession now defunct Republican democracy proven viable to world

13 MEANS TO AN END? During the war Lincoln violated the Constitutional limits on his powers: 1.Initiated blockade w/o advice/consent of Congress 2.Increased size of army w/o advice/consent of Congress 3.Appropriated funds w/o advice/consent of Congress 4.Suspended habeas corpus 5.“supervised” voting in border states (intimidation) 6.Violated freedom of the press 7.Uses total war against South? Will it jeopardize the peace? Also, the DRAFT: Was it necessary? Just?

14 Walt Whitman (1819–1892). Leaves of Grass O Captain! My Captain! 1 O CAPTAIN! my Captain! our fearful trip is done; The ship has weather’d every rack, the prize we sought is won; The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting, While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring: But O heart! heart! heart! 5 O the bleeding drops of red, Where on the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead.

15 2 O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells; Rise up—for you the flag is flung—for you the bugle trills; 10 For you bouquets and ribbon’d wreaths—for you the shores a-crowding; For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning; Here Captain! dear father! This arm beneath your head; It is some dream that on the deck, 15 You’ve fallen cold and dead.

16 Walt Whitman (1819–1892). Leaves of Grass My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still; My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will; The ship is anchor’d safe and sound, its voyage closed and done; From fearful trip, the victor ship, comes in with object won; 20 Exult, O shores, and ring, O bells! But I, with mournful tread, Walk the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead.


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