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Philip Adam ~ Jessica DiMarzio Kristie Folk ~ MacKenzie McCollum Chelsea Walker.

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Presentation on theme: "Philip Adam ~ Jessica DiMarzio Kristie Folk ~ MacKenzie McCollum Chelsea Walker."— Presentation transcript:

1 Philip Adam ~ Jessica DiMarzio Kristie Folk ~ MacKenzie McCollum Chelsea Walker

2 While working with a cathode ray tube in his laboratory, German physicist, W.C. Roentgen discovered it produced a previously unknown “invisible light.” This ray was emitted from the tube and had the capabilities of passing through the heavy paper covering the tube.

3 W.C. Roentgen chose to name the invisible light X- ray, since X is the mathematical symbol for the unknown. He was initially investigating the effects vacuum tube equipment and what occurred when electric charges passed through the tube. This led to him stumbling upon a great discovery. While repeating his experiment, he added an aluminum widow to permit the cathode rays to exit the gaseous tube. He also added cardboard covered with barium platinum cyanide to protect the aluminum. It was then that he noted a florescent glow on the cardboard screen.

4 Prior to the discovery of the X- ray, inventive measures were taken to diagnose bone injuries. Five hundred years prior to W.C. Roentgen, Italian doctor Guido Lanfranc used a horse hair between patient’s teeth to determine if a facture was present or not based on the musical tone produced by the string. Lanfranc’s diagnosis was usually fairly accurate.

5 Prior to the discovery, individuals used makeshift metal detectors on gunshot wound victims including President James Garfield. President Garfield

6 Preceding the time of the X-Rays, other scientists discovered light waves existed other than those in the visible spectrum. J.C. Maxwell discovered that light was actually an electromagnetic wave. Since 1799, scientists had begun to discover the electromagnetic spectrum. W.C. Roentgen’s contribution led to one practical application of these prior findings.

7 W.C. Roentgen’s discovery of the X-ray impacted the world drastically. Scientists worldwide could easily duplicate his experiment because the cathode tube was very well known experiment at that time.

8 As short as twelve months after his discovery, X-rays were being employed clinically in the United States for things such as: –g–gunshot wounds –b–bone fractures –k–kidney stones –t–the size and condition of vital organs Lungs (vital organs) Gunshot wound Bone fracture Kidney Stones

9 During the year following his discovery, more than 1,000 publications were written concerning the topic. While the majority of society was enthused about the medical impacts of this discovery, quickly implications arose for this misuse of this tool. People soon considered the X-ray could be used as an intrusive tool to look through walls, doors, and invade privacy.

10 Impacts included new employment positions such as: medical technicians X-ray researchers X-ray developers

11 Doctors were busier than ever because patients always wanted X-rays. This also increased the cost of health care. This increased the salaries of doctors and technicians, as well as increased the hospital's revenue.

12 Elizabeth Fleischmann, one of the first radiologist’s in America, was also the first woman to open her own laboratory located in San Francisco. The invention of the X-ray allowed women to emerge from their homes and obtain jobs as radiographers.

13 X-rays also helped bring about a new way of thinking about sexuality. The Roaring Twenties led to women asserting themselves into all facets of the world. Less than a year after this invention, it was permitted to be used in courtroom proceedings.

14 Also, this discovery led to people thinking that it predicted a pathway to the afterlife. After the first X-ray was taken of Roentgen’s wife’s hand she stated, “I have seen my death” -A. Bertha Roentgen (Dec. 22, 1895)

15 The X-ray was more than just a medical and scientific revolution. The X-ray led to new genres in the arts such as literary science fiction, art work, and photography. Literary

16 The global involvement in the World Wars led to an extensive increase in the X-ray industry. The Army was searching for men who had a background in the x-ray field to run their X-ray division. As "preparedness" swept the country, X-Ray experts joined the Army Medical Corps and training schools were set up across America to improve the portability of the machine itself.

17 Before WWI, America had a total of five mobile X-Ray machines. After fifteen months of fighting there were over seven hundred mobile units. Westinghouse Co. developed 35mm film to use in the x-ray machines instead of glass and larger film used previously

18 Today, the X-ray is used in all facets of the medical industry. In 1901, W.C. Roentgen won the Nobel Prize in physics for his design of the cathode rays. Roentgen also received the Honorary Doctor’s Degree of Medicine, but he refused to take on patients because he wanted the entire world to benefit from his discovery. At the time of his death he was nearly bankrupt.

19 The first X-ray was taken December 22, 1895 of Bertha Roentgen’s hand.

20 The world's X-Ray infatuation was so deep poems were written about it. The following appeared in Electrical Review: The Roentgen Rays, the Roentgen Rays, What is this craze? The town's ablaze With the new phase of X-Ray's ways. I'm full of daze, shock and amaze; For nowadays I hear they'll gaze Thro' cloak and gown--and even stays, Those naughty, naughty Roentgen Rays. 52

21 X-ray - used, first, body, produced, uses, device, X-Ray Discovery, A Diagnostic Tool, Practical Uses of X-rays. (n.d.). Medical Discoveries. Retrieved February 7, 2011, from Miller, A. (2003, April 14). Impact of the X-Ray. University of Mary Washington. Retrieved February 7, 2011, from http://www.umw.ed u/hisa/ resources /Student %20Pr ojects/A my%20Miller%20--%20X-Ray/students. _amill4gn/XRAY/PAGES/impact.html All Images from

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