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SOCIAL MOVEMENTS Gov 1255: Politics of India Prof Prerna Singh.

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Presentation on theme: "SOCIAL MOVEMENTS Gov 1255: Politics of India Prof Prerna Singh."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOCIAL MOVEMENTS Gov 1255: Politics of India Prof Prerna Singh

2 Social Movements Environmental Movements Women’s Movements Sexual Minority Politics (Guest lecture by Marcus Elridge)

3 Environmental Movements Forest Resources Water Resources

4 Conflict over Forest Resources Chipko (Hug the Trees) Movement in the Central Himalayas in 1973

5 Chipko Movement

6 Conflict over Forests Chipko (Hug the Trees) Movement Representative of wide spectrum of forest- based conflicts Traced to establishment of the Indian forest department in This was a watershed: – Political – Social – Ecological

7 Conflict over Forests Intensified in post-Independence years because of new ecological dimension – dwindling forests Popular movements focus on 2 issues: – Return of control of forests to community. State must withdraw. – Contrast between the subsistence orientation of villagers and the commercial orientation of the state.

8 Conflict over Water Big Dams Nehru’s “temples of modern India” Three Critiques of Big Dams: Economic critique: States invariably overvalue benefits & undervalue costs Ecological critique: High incidence of water logging & wholesale submergence of large tropical forests and precious wildlife & fishlife Social critique: Displacement of millions of poor villagers from their ancestral homelands without adequate consultation or compensation

9 Narmada Bachao Andolan/ Save the Narmada Campaign

10 Leader of the Narmada Bachao Andolan: Medha Patkar

11 Critiques of the Narmada Dams by the NBA that the project has been conceived without adequate participation from the people who are going to be affected; that many dams are not viable solutions to many of the problems (power, drinking water, flood control, irrigation) they set out to solve, and that there needs to be a greater emphasis on the search for alternative solutions from all concerned (Government, NGOs, people); that the construction and planning of many dams has disrupted (and will potentially disrupt) the lives of millions of people without just and adequate compensation

12 Environmental Movements Forest - Chipko Movement Water - Narmada Bachao Andolan Gandhian Social Movements

13 Demonstrations & Satyagrahs

14 Peaceful Response to Police Repression

15 Fasts

16 Jal Samadhi/ Water Burial

17 Women’s Movements No single movement On diverse issues Traditional focus: – Women’s education – Widow remarriage New focus – Alcoholism – Physical Abuse by Husbands – Inflation – Environment (Chipko) – Dalit issues

18 Women’s Movements Early Women’s Movements: – Movement against Dowry

19 Movement against Dowry

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21 Women’s Movements Early Women’s Movements: – Campaign against Dowry – Campaign against Rape

22 Women’s Movements Early Women’s Movements: – Campaign against Dowry – Campaign against Rape Features of Early Women’s Movements: – Popular support – Legislative successes

23 Women’s Movements Later Women’s Movements: – Critiques from sections of traditionalist society Success of early women’s movements Rise of religious fundamentalism – Pro-sati movements – “Real woman” vs. Feminists

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