Presentation on theme: "Done by:Lee Men Quan4S1 (18) Yan Kaidi4S1 (32) Yan Tianqi4S1 (33)"— Presentation transcript:
Done by:Lee Men Quan4S1 (18) Yan Kaidi4S1 (32) Yan Tianqi4S1 (33)
Introduction The Issue The First Chechen War The Second Chechen War The First Black Widow Acts of Terrorism Tactics A Famous Case A Recent Case Summary References
known as Shahidka in Russian Islamic Chechen female suicide bombers Many of them were widows of men killed by Russian forces in Chechnya. pun is intended (black widow is a poisonous spider) Also known as “Garden of the Righteous” by commander Shamil Basayev (remember this name). claimed to be part of a subunit of his suicide bomber squad.
The birth of the Black Widow is tied with the political history of Chechnya. For this, we will have to understand the background and situation. Multiple case studies will be covered
When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, and independence movement (known as Chechen National Congress) was formed. Wanted Chechnya to be a separate nation. Boris Yeltsin (president of Russian Federation) opposed and argued Chechnya had always been part of Russian Soviet Federation Socialist Republic. Also scared that other republics of Russia would also demand independence if Chechnya was granted. So the war broke out. When there is conflict, there will be a chance of terrorism spawning.
1994-1996 Russian Federation had overwhelming manpower, weaponry and support against Chechnya, but still could not control Chechnya Mainly due to many Chechen guerilla raids (led by Shamil Basayev – remember him? ). Buddyonnovsk hospital hostage crisis (also by Shamil Basayev ) – demoralised Russian Federation troops Turned the tide and ceasefire and in 1996 peace treaty was signed. Terrorism can be very impactful.
Chechnya economy was destroyed. Half a million (40% pre-war population) lost their homes. Russia tried to help economically but the funds were “eaten” up by some warlords and government authorities. Widespread poverty – Kidnapping was the main source of income nationwide! (>$200million in three years). Very suitable conditions for terrorists to train and mature. Marked the growth and rise of terrorist groups.
25 October 1998, Chechnya’s top anti-kidnapping official was killed in a remote-controlled car bombing. Wahhabists (followers of a certain religion) were blamed. The Chechen Military Guard and Islamic Militants were in a conflict and even confronted in 1998. There were open clashes between the two groups. The leader of the Islamic militants was Shamil Basayev. Resulted in the Islamic militants (terrorists) becoming more active. When religion and politics are involved, terrorists may rise.
In 1998 the Islamic International Brigade attempted to suddenly invade Russian republic of Dagestan, but failed. Believed that they were helping their neighbours to gain independence too. A series of apartment bombings killing 300 Russians were blamed on the Chechens. War broke out again. Chechen rebel forces conducted terrorist attacks. In February 2000, Grozny was captured, the Ichkerian regime fell apart.
In October 2002, the Moscow Theatre Hostage Crisis occurred. In 2005, Alan Maskhadov, the president of the separatist movement (also the former president of Chechnya), was killed. Shamil Basayev was killed in an explosion on 10 July 2006. The ones responsible for his death is still unknown. Suspected to be done by a rival terrorist group. Pro-Moscow Chechen regime was installed.
In June 2000, Khava Barayeva blew herself up in a Russian army base. She is known as the first Black Widow. Subsequently, this name has been used to address suicide bombers in Chechnya, of which many are female.
20002003 2004 20102009 Russian army base blown up – First Black Widow May, woman attempted to assasinate president during Ilashkan-Yurt by suicide bombing. 5 June, woman suicide bombed a bus, killing 17 Russian militants and severely injuring 15 of them. 6 June, 2 women suicide bombed at a rock concert in Moscow, killing 16 December, a male and female suicide bomber killed 46 and injured 100 by detonating on a commuter train in South Russia A suicide bomber detonated prematurely in front of the State Duma (Federal Assembly of Russia), a government building. Killed 6 and injured 13. A bomb in a café detonated as the bomb diffusal officer approached it. Female suicide bomber failed. 2 women attacked a school, killing 334 civilians including 184 children. Masterminded by: Shamil Basayev April, Russian forces ended its counter- terrorism operation. Pulled out bulk of army. 29 March, 2 suicide bombers detonated at Metro.
It is not known how Black Widows are recruited. Suspected tactics include tricking and kidnapping ladies or girls. The suicide bombers need no training, and many of the bombs are remote-controlled. This makes it easy to recruit and bomb. Grenades are usually strapped to the suicide bomber’s legs, and other explosives are usually put in bags or strapped to the suicide bomber’s body. Male suicide bombers do exist among the Black Widows.
Moscow Theatre Hostage Crisis Also known as 2002 Nord-Ost siege. 23 October 2002 A crowded Moscow theatre was seized by 40 to 50 armed Chechens from the Islamic militant Separatist Movement. Took 850 hostages and demanded Russian forces to withdraw and end the Second Chechen War. Led by Movsar Barayev.
An unknown chemical (believed to be 3-Methylfentanyl, an extremely potent street drug) was pumped into the ventilation system. Then the Russian Spetsnaz raided the place. Roughly 170 people died in all. Only 39 terrorists were officially killed by the Russian Spetsnaz. The rest were killed by the gas. There were only a few survivors. The Russian government refused to reveal the identity of the drug and so the survivors could not be treated.
2 suicide bombs were detonated on a Metro train in Moscow 29 March, 2010 The 2 female bombers detonated their bombs 40 minutes apart, the first one just before 8am (10am in our timezone). Killed at least 39 commuters and injured 60 others. 500, 000 commuters travel in by Metro trains during the peak hours (which was when the bombs were detonated). Investigation is still on-going, but the terrorist groups from North Caucasian (Black Widow) are highly suspected.
This bombing is suspected to be a retaliation for a raid in February 2010 by Russian forces in Ingushetia, Chechnya's western neighbour 20 insurgents died, including the presumed leader of a bomb attack on a Moscow to St Petersburg express train in November 2009. However, it may also be due to the withdrawal of bulk of the Russian troops last year, that they have become bolder. Although it is not confirmatory, the Black Widows are highly suspected to be behind this terrorist attack.
The conflict over the independence of Chechnya brought about conflict between Russia and Chechnya. This led to the birth of guerilla warfare and terrorism (The First Chechen War). Post-war poverty further aggravated the situation and allowed such activities to prosper. The Second Chechen War was won by Republic of Russia, but terrorist attacks continue. Women are often used as suicide bombers. Recently, there was a case of terrorist bombing on Metro train station. Similarly, we can see that MRT in Singapore is very vulnerable.
Picture sources: http://www.microbotic.org/Photos/Black%20Widow/BlackWidow1.jpg http://thebreaksover.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/usb-memory-bomb.jpg Video sources: http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/europe/03/30/russia.subway.explosions/index.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ROPlv-Ya8tk Information sources: http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/europe/03/30/russia.subway.explosions/index.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aslan_Maskhadov http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chechnya http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moscow_theater_hostage_crisis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shamil_Basayev http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shahidka http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8592689.stm