Presentation on theme: "Asian Empires 1500--1700 Mughal Empire Muslims and Hindus in the Mughal Empire 20 % Muslim --ruling dynasty + 20% pop ---rest of pop. a form of Hinduism."— Presentation transcript:
Asian Empires Mughal Empire
Muslims and Hindus in the Mughal Empire 20 % Muslim --ruling dynasty + 20% pop ---rest of pop. a form of Hinduism
Akbar Emperor --recognized diversity of people --made accomodations for Hindus Disapproved of sati and other restrictions on women (time of tolerance) Removed jizya tax on non-muslims Sponsored House of Worship --issues of faith could be debated Supported culture that fused variety of traditions
Sati in India In India, the Laws of Manu, compiled around 200 CE declared that a Hindu widow was to remain sati, a Sanskrit word that was interpreted to mean chaste or pure, and was not to remarry, while a Hindu widower was permitted to marry again. Gradually, the word sati was used to designate the ritual of self- immolation or self-sacrifice by a Hindu widow on her husband’s pyre. Through her self-sacrifice, a widow remained pure and demonstrated her everlasting devotion to her husband. Thus sati (a word that Europeans frequently transliterated as suttee) came to mean both the practice of self-immolation and the Hindu widow who died by this ritual. Such a widow was thought to become a goddess and to bring auspiciousness or good fortune to her birth and marital families. Her cremation site was also marked by a commemorative stone or temple and became a pilgrimage site for devotees seeking divine favors. Although it was never widespread, sati as self-immolation became and remains a potent source for stereotypes of Indian society as ridden with exotic and superstitious religious injunctions, and for images of Hindu women as oppressed.
jizya, also spelled jizyah, Arabic jizyah, head or poll tax that early Islamic rulers demanded from their non-Muslim subjects. Islamic law made a distinction between two categories of non-Muslim subjects—pagans and dhimmis (“protected peoples,” or “peoples of the book”; i.e., those peoples who based their religious beliefs on sacred texts, such as Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians). The Muslim rulers tolerated the dhimmis and allowed them to practice their religion. In return for protection and as a mark of their submission, the dhimmis were required to pay a special poll tax known as the jizya. The rate of taxation and methods of collection varied greatly from province to province and were greatly influenced by local pre-Islamic customs. In theory the tax money was to be used for charitable purposes and the payment of salaries and pensions. In practice, however, the revenues derived from the jizya were deposited in the private treasuries of the rulers. The Ottomans usually used the proceeds of the jizya to pay their military expenses.
Ahmad Sirhindi Muslim reformer --attacked Sufism and Hindu practices into Muslim community --argued for purified Islam ??Sufism?? Islamic mysticism Non-Muslims often mistake Sufism as a sect of Islam. Sufism is more accurately described as an aspect or dimension of Islam. Sufi orders (Tariqas) can be found in Sunni, Shia and other Islamic groups.
Arab historian Ibn Khaldun 14th century Arab historian... dedication to worship, total dedication to Allah most High, disregard for the finery and ornament of the world, abstinence from the pleasure, wealth, and prestige sought by most men, and retiring from others to worship alone.
Aurangzeb Emperor --overturned many of Akbar’s tolerant polices --re-imposed jizya --destroyed temples, banned dancing girls, stopped music at court Marked downturn in Hindu-Muslim relations/ provoked bitter reactions from Hindus