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The Peripheral Nervous System. Facts about the PNS All nerves that are not encased in bone. All nerves that are not encased in bone. Everything but the.

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Presentation on theme: "The Peripheral Nervous System. Facts about the PNS All nerves that are not encased in bone. All nerves that are not encased in bone. Everything but the."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Peripheral Nervous System

2 Facts about the PNS All nerves that are not encased in bone. All nerves that are not encased in bone. Everything but the brain and spinal cord. Everything but the brain and spinal cord. Is divided into two categories….somatic and autonomic. Is divided into two categories….somatic and autonomic. Video Video Video

3 Somatic Nervous System Controls voluntary muscle movement. Controls voluntary muscle movement. Uses motor (efferent) neurons. Uses motor (efferent) neurons.

4 Autonomic Nervous System Controls the automatic functions of the body. Controls the automatic functions of the body. Divided into two categories…the sympathetic and the parasympathetic Divided into two categories…the sympathetic and the parasympathetic Video Video Video

5 Sympathetic Nervous System Fight or Flight Response. Fight or Flight Response. Automatically accelerates heart rate, breathing, dilates pupils, slows down digestion. Automatically accelerates heart rate, breathing, dilates pupils, slows down digestion.

6 Parasympathetic Nervous System Automatically slows the body down after a stressful event. Automatically slows the body down after a stressful event. Heart rate and breathing slow down, pupils constrict and digestion speeds up. Heart rate and breathing slow down, pupils constrict and digestion speeds up.

7 What happens in Fight/Flight? What happens after?

8 Reflexes Normally, sensory (afferent) neurons take info up through spine to the brain. Normally, sensory (afferent) neurons take info up through spine to the brain. Some reactions occur when sensory neurons reach just the spinal cord. Some reactions occur when sensory neurons reach just the spinal cord. Survival adaptation. Survival adaptation.

9 Genetics ….our blueprint for life

10 General information: All physical and some personality traits are determined by our genes. All physical and some personality traits are determined by our genes. Identical twins reared apart are ideal for studying genetic make up versus the effects of environment. (nature vs. nurture.) Identical twins reared apart are ideal for studying genetic make up versus the effects of environment. (nature vs. nurture.) Genes are all pervasive, but not all powerful Genes are all pervasive, but not all powerful

11 Did you know? There exists a real genetic disorder that makes individuals smell like rotting fish. There exists a real genetic disorder that makes individuals smell like rotting fish. There exists a real genetic disorder that makes individuals smell like rotting fish. There exists a real genetic disorder that makes individuals smell like rotting fish. Its called Trimethylaminuria (TMAU) Its called Trimethylaminuria (TMAU) List of genetic disorders List of genetic disorders List of genetic disorders List of genetic disorders

12 Building blocks of us… Genes are passed down from parent to child. Genes are passed down from parent to child. 23 chromosomes from mother via egg. 23 chromosomes from mother via egg. 23 chromosomes from father via sperm. 23 chromosomes from father via sperm. Chromosomes are made up of DNA. Chromosomes are made up of DNA. DNA is made of genes. DNA is made of genes. Genes are made of nucleotides. Genes are made of nucleotides. 4 Nucleotides symbolized by letters A,T,C,G. 4 Nucleotides symbolized by letters A,T,C,G.

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14 Did you know… Humans are 99.4% identical – only.1% of our genetic makeup differs. Humans are 99.4% identical – only.1% of our genetic makeup differs. Humans are 99.4% identical – only.1% of our genetic makeup differs. Humans are 99.4% identical – only.1% of our genetic makeup differs.

15 Genetic Factors… Dominant v. Recessive Traits Dominant v. Recessive Traits The 23 chromosomes taken from each parent form pairs and determine many traits like hair and eye color. The 23 chromosomes taken from each parent form pairs and determine many traits like hair and eye color. If either parent contributes a dominate trait that will be expressed. If either parent contributes a dominate trait that will be expressed. If both parents contribute a recessive gene, the trait will be expressed. If both parents contribute a recessive gene, the trait will be expressed.

16 Did you know… If the total DNA in one person were laid in a straight line, it would stretch to the sun and back over 600 times If the total DNA in one person were laid in a straight line, it would stretch to the sun and back over 600 times If the total DNA in one person were laid in a straight line, it would stretch to the sun and back over 600 times If the total DNA in one person were laid in a straight line, it would stretch to the sun and back over 600 times

17 Dominant v. Recessive Traits List online List online List online Man with attached earlobe (left) and man with free earlobe (right). Man with attached earlobe (left) and man with free earlobe (right). Woman with widow's peak (left) and woman with no widow's peak (right). Woman with widow's peak (left) and woman with no widow's peak (right).

18 Incomplete List of Dominant Traits Eye coloring brown eyes Eye coloring brown eyes Vision farsightedness normal vision Vision farsightedness normal vision Hair dark hair non-red hair curly hair full head of hair widow's peak Hair dark hair non-red hair curly hair full head of hair widow's peak Facial features dimples unattached earlobes freckles broad lips Appendages extra digits fused digits short digits fingers lack 1 joint limb dwarfing clubbed thumb double-jointedness

19 Why are twins so special? Two types of twins: Two types of twins: Fraternal (dyzygotic) Fraternal (dyzygotic) Develop from separate eggs Develop from separate eggs Different genotype (no more similar than non twin siblings) Different genotype (no more similar than non twin siblings) Identical (monozygotic) Identical (monozygotic) Develop from same egg and sperm Develop from same egg and sperm Same genotype, different phenotype Same genotype, different phenotype Phenotype is the interaction of heredity and environment that causes observable characteristics. Phenotype is the interaction of heredity and environment that causes observable characteristics. Genotype is the genetic constitution of an individual. Genotype is the genetic constitution of an individual.

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21 Twins Best way to really study genetics because they come from the same zygote. Best way to really study genetics because they come from the same zygote. Bouchard Study Bouchard Study Bouchard Study Bouchard Study.69 Correlational coefficient for IQ tests of identical twins raised apart..69 Correlational coefficient for IQ tests of identical twins raised apart..88 raised together..88 raised together.

22 Heritability Heritability Heritability Heritability “difference among people” “difference among people” Def: the extent to which variation among individuals can be attributed to their differing genes. Def: the extent to which variation among individuals can be attributed to their differing genes.

23 How are traits expressed? The Punnett square shows every possible combination when combining one maternal DNA with one paternal DNA. The Punnett square shows every possible combination when combining one maternal DNA with one paternal DNA. Assume both organisms have the genotype Bb. They can produce gametes that contain either the B or b DNA. Assume both organisms have the genotype Bb. They can produce gametes that contain either the B or b DNA.genotypegametesgenotypegametes The probability of an individual offspring having the genotype BB is 25%, Bb is 50%, and bb is 25%. The probability of an individual offspring having the genotype BB is 25%, Bb is 50%, and bb is 25%.

24 Genotype v. Phenotype https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NLVulUy 7T7E https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NLVulUy 7T7E https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NLVulUy 7T7E https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NLVulUy 7T7E Genotype is ______________ Genotype is ______________ Phenotype is ______________ Phenotype is ______________

25 Draw your own Punnett Square for the earlobe example in the video. Punnett

26 The Genetic Revolution Scientists have mapped the human genome. Scientists have mapped the human genome. See Genome/posters/chromosome/chooser.shtml See Genome/posters/chromosome/chooser.shtml Genome/posters/chromosome/chooser.shtml Genome/posters/chromosome/chooser.shtml Consider the following questions in groups of 4: Consider the following questions in groups of 4:

27 If it were possible, would you want to take a test telling you which diseases you are likely to suffer from later in life? Why?

28 If you or your spouse were pregnant, would you want to unborn child tested for genetic defects? Why?

29 Do you think it should be legal for employers to use genetic testing in deciding whom to hire? Why?

30 Evolutionary Psychology Focus mostly on what makes us so much alike as humans. Focus mostly on what makes us so much alike as humans. Natural Selection is used as a cornerstone to understand the roots of behavior and mental processes. Natural Selection is used as a cornerstone to understand the roots of behavior and mental processes.

31 Fundamental foundation to Modern Psychology


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