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Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Human Genetics

2 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings In humans – Each somatic cell has 46 chromosomes, made up of two sets – One set of chromosomes comes from each parent Sets of Chromosomes in Human Cells

3 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 5 µm Pair of homologous chromosomes Centromere Sister chromatids Figure 13.3 A karyotype – Is an ordered, visual representation of the chromosomes in a cell

4 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Homologous chromosomes – Are the two chromosomes composing a pair – Have the same characteristics – May also be called autosomes

5 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sex chromosomes – Are distinct from each other in their characteristics – Are represented as X and Y – Determine the sex of the individual, XX being female, XY being male

6 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Many human traits follow Mendelian patterns of inheritance Humans are not convenient subjects for genetic research – However, the study of human genetics continues to advance

7 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pedigree Analysis A pedigree – Is a family tree that describes the interrelationships of parents and children across generations – Can be used to make predictions about future offspring

8 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Inheritance patterns of particular traits – Can be traced and described using pedigrees Figure A, B Ww ww Ww wwWw ww Ww WW or Ww ww First generation (grandparents) Second generation (parents plus aunts and uncles) Third generation (two sisters) Ff ffFf ff Ff ff Ff FF or Ff ff FF or Ff Widow’s peak No Widow’s peak Attached earlobe Free earlobe (a) Dominant trait (widow’s peak) (b) Recessive trait (attached earlobe)

9 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Recessively Inherited Disorders Many genetic disorders – Are inherited in a recessive manner

10 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Recessively inherited disorders – Show up only in individuals homozygous for the allele Carriers – Are heterozygous individuals who carry the recessive allele but are phenotypically normal

11 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cystic Fibrosis Symptoms of cystic fibrosis include – Mucus buildup in the some internal organs – Abnormal absorption of nutrients in the small intestine

12 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sickle-Cell Disease Sickle-cell disease – Affects one out of 400 African-Americans – Is caused by the substitution of a single amino acid in the hemoglobin protein in red blood cells Symptoms include – Physical weakness, pain, organ damage, and even paralysis

13 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dominantly Inherited Disorders Some human disorders – Are due to dominant alleles

14 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dominantly Inherited Disorder: Achondroplasia – A form of dwarfism that is lethal when homozygous for the dominant allele Figure 14.15

15 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Huntington’s disease – Is a degenerative disease of the nervous system – Has no obvious phenotypic effects until about 35 to 40 years of age Figure 14.16

16 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Multifactorial Disorders Many human diseases – Have both genetic and environment components Examples include – Heart disease and cancer

17 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Genetic Testing and Counseling Genetic counselors – Can provide information to prospective parents concerned about a family history for a specific disease

18 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Counseling Based on Mendelian Genetics and Probability Rules Using family histories – Genetic counselors help couples determine the odds that their children will have genetic disorders

19 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Tests for Identifying Carriers For a growing number of diseases – Tests are available that identify carriers and help define the odds more accurately

20 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fetal Testing In amniocentesis – The liquid that bathes the fetus is removed and tested In chorionic villus sampling (CVS) – A sample of the placenta is removed and tested

21 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fetal testing Figure A, B (a) Amniocentesis Amniotic fluid withdrawn Fetus PlacentaUterus Cervix Centrifugation A sample of amniotic fluid can be taken starting at the 14th to 16th week of pregnancy. (b) Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) Fluid Fetal cells Biochemical tests can be Performed immediately on the amniotic fluid or later on the cultured cells. Fetal cells must be cultured for several weeks to obtain sufficient numbers for karyotyping. Several weeks Biochemical tests Several hours Fetal cells Placenta Chorionic viIIi A sample of chorionic villus tissue can be taken as early as the 8th to 10th week of pregnancy. Suction tube Inserted through cervix Fetus Karyotyping and biochemical tests can be performed on the fetal cells immediately, providing results within a day or so. Karyotyping

22 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Newborn Screening Some genetic disorders can be detected at birth – By simple tests that are now routinely performed in most hospitals in the United States


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