Outline What does a computer scientist do? Robotics Artificial Intelligence
What's a Computer Scientist? Let's ask Jeeves first: –Jeeves' answerJeeves' answer Answer: –Computers are a new, complex kind of tool –Computer scientists figure out how to do useful things with computers: graphics & medical imaging networking sharing information (the web) robotics & artificial intelligence!
Where do CS ppl. work? There are basically three places that use computer scientists: –Academia - colleges and universities for teaching and research –Research institutions - NASA, plus other companies that do research (Microsoft, Bell Labs, etc.) –Industry - programmers (writing the software that people use on their computers)
Robotics A robot is basically a mechanism that operates under computer control The main purpose they serve these days is to do boring, repetitive tasks The fun ones are research robots
Basic Robot Has three parts: Reads sensors to understand environment Computes what to do based on sensors Uses actuators to do it Sensors Computer Actuators
Sensors & Actuators Many possible sensors: –video cameras –tilt sensors –force sensors Many possible actuators: –Electric motors –Hydraulics –Pneumatics
Mobile Robotics All the stuff done in the field called Mobile Robotics. –means that robot can move around on its own power –as opposed to most industrial robots, which are giant arms bolted to the floor There are two types of mobile robots: –walking robots –wheeled robots
Examples, examples We'll do this by example… Robots at Carnegie Mellon: –Daedalus –Lunar Rover (Nomad) –Black Widow Robot at NASA: –Dexter
Daedalus Designed to be a planetary explorer
Daedalus an example of a frame walker Frame 1: Frame 2: Legs
Nomad Designed to test ideas for a commercial trip to the moon (LunaCorp)
Nomad Went to the Atacama desert of Chile Searched for meteorites in Antarctica Is a wheeled robot Super-cool collapsible steering mechanismcollapsible steering mechanism
Dextre Dextre is a two armed robot which is part of the Mobile Servicing System on the International Space Station (ISS), and extends the function of this system to replace some activities otherwise requiring spacewalks. It was launched March 11, 2008 on mission STS-123.Mobile Servicing SystemInternational Space Station spacewalksSTS-123
Black Widow A research project
Black Widow Patterned somewhat after an insect (leg length, number of legs) Patterned somewhat after a crab Purpose was to try out walking algorithms. Used neural networks for training method
Artificial Intelligence Attempts to understand and build intelligent entities Four different definitions of AI: –acting humanly (the Turing Test) –thinking humanly –thinking rationally –acting rationally (this is the goal of robotics)
Problems that require AI Natural Language Processing –make a computer understand English Machine Learning –change behavior based on experience Perception of a visual scene –be able to pick out people, objects, etc. Robotics! –navigation, accomplishing tasks, etc.
AI Techniques Some that you've probably heard of: –Neural Networks –Genetic Algorithms –Fuzzy Logic Others that are popular: –Reinforcement learning –Probabilistic reasoning –Search techniques
Neural Networks Based on animal nervous systems:
Neural Network Neuron Input Links (from other neurons) Weighted Sum Activation Function Output Links (to other neurons)
A Simple Neural Network Output Input
Training Neural Networks That was Black Widow's neural network to keep the body level. To train (decide the weights to use in the weighted sums) a NN, you have to give it LOTS of examples Traditionally, these are generated in simulation or by people –It made the robots do the work...