3 Sanskrit Ukrainian English Мāтар - матір - motherВідгава - вдова - widowСвасар - сестра - sisterМус - миша - mouseВāюс - вітер - windГірі - гора - hillНава - новий - newдваӮ - два - twoТраяс - три - threeПанча - пять - five
4 Language classifications GeneticLanguages share linguistic properties because they’re genetically related, historically, they evolved from the same parent language.Historical Comparative LinguisticsTypologicalTypological classifications are based on shared formal characteristics of languages, irrespective of their origin: properties of sounds, words, sentences.Linguistic Typology
5 Typological classifications English (Germanic), Classical Arabic (Semitic), Russian (Slavic), form wh-questions by placing the wh-phrase at the front of the sentence (called wh-fronting):Who did you meet?What did he do?By contrast, Chinese, Japanese, and Egyptian Arabic form wh-questions by leaving the wh-phrase in the end:You met who?He did what?
8 Morphological Classification Isolating languagesAgglutinating languagesFlectional languagessynthetic languagesanalytic languagesPolysynthetic languages
9 Isolating LanguagesEach word in the sentence consists of just one morpheme:[ wƆ mǝn tan tçin ][ wƆ mǝn tan tçin lǝ ][ ta da wƆ mǝn ]
10 Agglutinating Languages Each morpheme expresses only one meaning element.The breaks between morphemes (e.g. between root and affix) are usually easy to identify.
11 Agglutinating Languages Turkish ev - house el handev-im my houseev-e to a houseev-in of a houseev-de in a houseev-imiz our houseev-ler housesev-ĵik-ler - little housesev-ler-de , ev-ler-imiz-eN-A-pl-pron-prepof our little handsel-ĵik- ler -imiz -in
12 Agglutinating Languages Swahili Present Past Futureni-na-soma ni-li-soma ni-ta-somau-na-somaa-na-soma
13 Flectional (Fusional) each affixal morpheme expresses more than one meaningmorphemes are frequently fused together (root morphemes are affected by affixal morphemes)Ukr.: чита-є чита-впис-ав пиш-енесу носивGreek: lu-o ‘I loose’lu-ousin ‘They loose’
14 Flectional languages Synthetic (читає, читають, читав, України, Петро бачив Анну)Analytic(is reading, are reading, was reading, capital of Ukraine, Peter saw Ann)
15 Polysynthetic (Incorporating) These languages typically combine many morphemes to form very long words.qasu-iir-sar-vig-ssar-si-ngit-luinar-nar-puq‘Someone did not find a completely suitable resting place.’
16 isolating→analytic→agglutinating →synthetic Historically, synthetic morphology is usually derived from agglutinative morphology, which in turn is derived from the analytic use of function words:isolating→analytic→agglutinating →syntheticHence, different languages usually possess features of different morphological types
17 Agglutination features in English СomerseComersial, comersialism,comercialist(ic)establishestablish-mentestablish-ment-aryestablish-ment-ari-anestablish-ment-ari-an-ismdis-establish-ment-ari-an-ismanti-dis-establish-ment-ari-an-ism
18 Synthetic features in English write - wrote - writtenstudy - studiedstudy - studiesgood - betterwife - wives
19 Analytic features in English Come- are comingTake – will takeDoes – is doneGet – have gotDifficult – more difficultA book - the book
20 Polysynthetic features in English a devil-may-care attitudea merry-go-round
21 The type of language is established on the basis of its predominant features. Isolating__E_____________U______Polysynthetic
22 REVISIONWhat is the difference of genetic and typological classification of languages?What is the type of language based on?Which language type construct words from clearly defined morphemes?In which language type affixes are not easy to separate from the stem?Which language type has mostly one- morpheme words?Which language type combines many morphemes to form very long words?Are there pure types of languages?
23 Comment on the slide Sanskrit Ukrainian English Мāтар - матір - mother Відгава - вдова - widowСвасар - сестра - sisterМус - миша - mouseВāюс - вітер - windГірі - гора - hillНава - новий - newдваӮ - два - twoТраяс - три - threeПанча - пять - five