Language classifications Genetic Languages share linguistic properties because they’re genetically related, historically, they evolved from the same parent language. Historical Comparative Linguistics Typological Typological classifications are based on shared formal characteristics of languages, irrespective of their origin: properties of sounds, words, sentences. Linguistic Typology
Typological classifications English (Germanic), Classical Arabic (Semitic), Russian (Slavic), form wh-questions by placing the wh-phrase at the front of the sentence (called wh-fronting): Who did you meet? What did he do? By contrast, Chinese, Japanese, and Egyptian Arabic form wh-questions by leaving the wh-phrase in the end: You met who? He did what?
Typological classifications Frederick Schlegel ( ) August Schlegel ( ) Wilhelm Humboldt ( )
Morphological Classification Isolating languages Agglutinating languages Flectional languages synthetic languages analytic languages Polysynthetic languages
Isolating Languages Each word in the sentence consists of just one morpheme: [ w Ɔ m ǝ n tan t ç in ] [ w Ɔ m ǝ n tan t ç in l ǝ ] [ ta da w Ɔ m ǝ n ]
Agglutinating Languages Each morpheme expresses only one meaning element. The breaks between morphemes (e.g. between root and affix) are usually easy to identify.
Agglutinating Languages Turkish ev-house el - hand ev-im- my house ev-e- to a house ev-in - of a house ev-de- in a house ev-imiz - our house ev-ler- houses ev-ĵik-ler-little houses ev-ler-de, ev-ler-imiz-e N-A-pl-pron-prep of our little hands el-ĵik- ler -imiz -in
Flectional (Fusional) each affixal morpheme expresses more than one meaning morphemes are frequently fused together (root morphemes are affected by affixal morphemes) Ukr.: чита-є чита-в пис-ав пиш-е несу носив Greek: lu-o ‘I loose’ lu-ousin ‘They loose’
Flectional languages Synthetic (читає, читають, читав, України, Петро бачив Анну) Analytic (is reading, are reading, was reading, capital of Ukraine, Peter saw Ann)
Polysynthetic (Incorporating) These languages typically combine many morphemes to form very long words. qasu-iir-sar-vig-ssar-si-ngit-luinar-nar-puq ‘Someone did not find a completely suitable resting place.’
Historically, synthetic morphology is usually derived from agglutinativemorphology, which in turn is derived from the analytic use of function words: isolating→analytic→agglutinating →synthetic Hence, different languages usually possess features of different morphological types
Agglutination features in English Сomerse Comersial, comersialism,comercialist(ic) establish establish-ment establish-ment-ary establish-ment-ari-an establish-ment-ari-an-ism dis-establish-ment-ari-an-ism anti-dis-establish-ment-ari-an-ism
Synthetic features in English write-wrote - written study-studied study-studies good-better wife-wives
Analytic features in English Come- are coming Take – will take Does – is done Get – have got Difficult – more difficult A book - the book
Polysynthetic features in English a devil-may-care attitude a merry-go-round
The type of language is established on the basis of its predominant features. Isolating__E_____________U______Polysynthetic
REVISION What is the difference of genetic and typological classification of languages? What is the type of language based on? Which language type construct words from clearly defined morphemes? In which language type affixes are not easy to separate from the stem? Which language type has mostly one- morpheme words? Which language type combines many morphemes to form very long words? Are there pure types of languages?
Comment on the slide SanskritUkrainianEnglish Мāтар- матір-mother Відгава-вдова-widow Свасар-сестра-sister Мус -миша-mouse Вāюс-вітер-wind Гірі- гора-hill Нава-новий-new два Ӯ - два-two Траяс-три-three Панча-пять-five