Pagination Use roman numerals in first section for Acknowledgments, Abstract, and TOC – at bottom in the middle of the page
Pagination in Body of Paper Page numbers go in upper right-hand corner Use a section break to divide the paper into sections to change from roman numerals at bottom to numbers in upper right
Pagination in Word 2007 Page numbers go in upper right-hand corner Use a section break to divide the paper into sections to change from roman numerals at bottom to numbers in upper right
Margins 12 1½ inch left margin for dissertation. For the final dissertation report, use a ruler Tip: Try setting bottom margin at 0.95 inches. Tables and appendices MUST have correct margins! No running headers See ARC document, Tips for Correct Margins http://www.schoolofed.nova. edu/arc/word/margins.doc
Formatting rules for the paper – no bolding, no underlining, not bullets, APA headings Use double-spacing throughout the paper including the title page, abstract, body of the document, reference list, appendixes, tables, and figure captions. APA does permit single spacing within references but double spacing between references. (See p. 326 of the Publication Manual.) Major headings require specific formatting (a) The first word of the heading is capitalized as well as all major words; (b) articles, short prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions are not capitalized; and (c) the heading is not italicized. Exceptions for dissertation. Other issues also need to be 72 Chapter 3 Methodology Bolding used for headings & mathematical symbols but not text. No underlining No Introduction section Level 1 Level 3 APA Headings Sample and Population. Level 2
Headings --APA (6th ed.), p. 62 Use Level 1 Headings Level 2 – Flush Left, Bold, Upper and Lower Case Side Heading Level 3 is indented, bold, uses lowercase, and ends with a period.
Don’t use Microsoft Word headings Ahah! Do not use Word’s headings to format the different levels of APA headings.
Formatting definitions Definition of Terms For the purposes of this study, the following terms are defined. Information literacy. This phrase refers to a set of standards approved by … Outcomes. For the purposes of this applied dissertation, outcome refers to …. Assessment. This term refers to … This is not numbered so do not use a colon. Note bolding and period after word or phrase being defined when using Level 3 format. Use complete sentence(s) for the definition of the term or phrase. Italicized -- APA, p. 91 Level 2 Level 3
Formatting research questions Method The methodology of this applied dissertation followed the following three steps: 1. The sample and participants were identified. …. 2. Assessment measures were selected…. 3. Implementation took place over a period of one school year…. Paragraph seriation – Indented. The second line wraps back to margin. APA manual, pp. 63-64 Numbered list for conclusions, steps in a process, chronology, or priority. The arabic numerals followed by a period. Paragraph Seriation
The ACRL Information Literacy Comprehensive Standards address the ability of students (a) to determine the nature and extent of the information need, (b) to access information efficiently and accurately, and (c) to evaluate information critically. Items are not indented. Use lowercase letters in parentheses. Do not italicize. A colon is not used when the list is not numbered Seriation for items in a sentence or paragraph APA, p. 64 Seriation in paragraph
The ACRL Information Literacy Comprehensive Standards address the ability of students (a) to determine the nature and extent of the information need, (b) to access information efficiently and accurately, and (c) to evaluate information critically. Use commas to separate 3 or more elements. If there are no internal commas, use commas. If there are internal commas, use semicolons. Seriation in paragraph
Appendices Must have correct margins and all pages in appendices must be numbered Each appendix must have an individual cover page Do not include any appendices that are not mentioned in the text Do not include IRB information If there is only one appendix, just use Appendix, not Appendix A
Slang vs Key or Linguistic Term The students felt “slammed” by the email. The term school media specialist is defined in this study to include only librarians with MLS degrees and state certification. The letter b was used to … Use quotation marks for slang, coined, or ironic terms. p. 91 Italicize linguistic examples and technical or key terms. p. 91
Abbreviations and acronyms Abbreviations and Acronyms: Use sparingly Parenthetical Nonparenthetical (in the text) Use Latin Use English (e.g., ) for example, (i.e., ) that is, (, etc. ), and so forth Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Nova Southeastern University (NSU) Spell out first time Must abbreviate thereafter APA, pp. 106-111
Statistical Abbreviations and Symbols Use standard typeface for Greek letters, subscripts, superscripts, and abbreviations that function as identifiers, not variables. sin, log, β Symbols for vectors and matrices are bolded. V, ∑ APA manual, p. 118
Statistical Abbreviations and Symbols Italicize letters used as statistical symbols: f – frequency Mdn – median n – number in a subsample N – number in a sample p – probability P – percentage, percentile t – computed value for t test APA manual, pp. 119-121
Use figures for numbers 10 and above: 343 students in 26 classes The numbers between one and nine should be spelled out: A total of six experiments went awry. Numbers: See APA pp. 111-114
Use figures for all times – years, months, days, hours, minutes The teachers take 3 hours to complete the work. 3 months ago 2 weeks later 11:30 a.m. Numbers representing dates, age, exact sums of money April 16, 2007 2-year-olds reimbursed $5 Exception --Use word when a number is the first word in the sentence. Two hours is more than enough time. Numbers: See APA pp. 111-114
Numbers denoting a specific place in a series, book, or table Table 5 Session 3 Grade 7 Percentages, fractions, ratios, percentiles, quartiles Twenty-four percent replied but 76% did not. Numbers, cont. More exceptions: APA manual, pp. 111-114
In first grade, the students… (APA, p. 125f) but In 12th grade, the students …
In Grade 1, the students … (APA, p. 125f) In first grade, the students… (APA, p. 125f) but In 12th grade, the students … (Note: Do NOT use superscript -- 12 th grade)
In Grade 1, the students … (APA, p. 125f) In first grade, the students… (APA, p. 125f) but In 12th grade, the students … (Note: Do NOT use superscript -- 12 th grade) Twelfth grade presents….
In Grade 1, the students … (APA, p. 125f) In first grade, the students… (APA, p. 125f) but In 12th grade, the students … (Note: Do NOT use superscript -- 12 th grade) Twelfth grade presents…. The first-grade students … (hyphenated compound adjective APA, p. 91) but The 12th-grade students (APA p. 128, 3.45)
1.Tenth-grade students ate in the cafeteria. or 2. 10th-grade students ate in the cafeteria. 1.The seventh grade went on a field trip. or 2. The 7th grade went on a field trip. 1.Students in Grades 4 and 5 took the test. or 2.Students in grades 4 and 5 took the test. or 3. Students in grades four and five took the test.
Compound Adjectives Role playing High anxiety Seventh grade Role-playing technique High-anxiety situations Seventh-grade students but Type II error Post hoc comparisons randomly assigned participants APA manual, pp. 98 - 100
Commas Between independent clauses: Jane went to school, but Dick stayed home. Use commas: APA (6th ed.), pp. 88-89
Commas Between independent clauses: Jane went to school, but Dick stayed home. Series of three or more Jane, Dick, and Harry argued about money. Use commas: APA (6th ed.), pp. 78-79
Commas Between independent clauses: Jane went to school, but Dick stayed home. Series of three or more Jane, Dick, and Harry argued about money. Nonessential or nonrestictive clauses Direct TV, which is available in south Florida, offers some nice features. Use commas: APA (6th ed.), pp. 78-79
Commas Between independent clauses: Jane went to school, but Dick stayed home. Series of three or more Jane, Dick, and Harry argued about money. Nonessential or nonrestictive clauses Direct TV, which is available in south Florida, offers some nice features. Use commas: But: Comma are not used to separate a compound predicate Jane baked a cake and worked on her homework. APA (6th ed.), pp. 78-79
Rules for Capitalizing Titles Article title: – In text: The article entitled “An Assessment of the Reading Skills of Inner-City Students” settled the question about appropriate techniques. – In reference citation: Smith, D. (1999). An assessment of reading skills of inner-city students. The Reading Teacher, 14(3), 45-46. Book title: –In text: The book, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, is a modern classic. –In reference citation: Gibbon, E. (1963). The decline and fall of the Roman Empire. New York: Dell. APA manual, p. 101 Capitalize all words of four letters or more as well as verbs in text but not reference list. Capitalize first word after a hyphen in text title but not in reference list.
Capitalizing Proper Names of School/ University Departments and Courses Department of Education, Valparaiso University Doctoral Studies Orientation 8000 Educational Assessment 101 APA manual, pp. 96-97 Proper names
Capitalizing Proper Names of School/ University Departments and Courses Department of Education, Valparaiso University Doctoral Studies Orientation 8000 Educational Assessment 101 but an education department a doctoral orientation an educational assessment course APA manual, p. 102 Trade names
Other Proper Names In the third week, the class will be… but In Week 3, the class will be … In the second chapter, read the section … but In Chapter 2, read the section on ….
The principal stated, “Instructors may or may not want to require an abstract for class assignments” (Tunon, 2006, p. 34), but she concluded that they always summarized the essential content of the paper. In midsentence Block quote Students at Nova Southeastern University have faced challenges in learning how to use APA formatting. When discussing the challenges, Tunon (2006) found the following: Use quotes around an article title or book chapter, but italicize the title of a book, journal, … or report when used in the body of the paper. Use a shot [sic] title in the parenthetical citation or complete title if the title is short. NOTE Non-periodical titles like books and book titles have all the important words capitalized in the text citations, but these same book titles do not have all the important words capitalized in the reference list. (p. 342) Formatting for Direct Quotes: Tunon (2006) found that “instructors may or may not want to require an abstract for class assignments” (p. 34). At end of a sentence Use a colon if there is a complete introductory phrase. See APA, pp. 92, 171 quotes
Citing direct quotes See APA manual, pp. 92, 171-173. When Citing Direct Quotes “… victims of emotional abuse” (O’Higgins, 2004, p. 237). Vest (2008) reported that "empirical research verified compliance" (p. 48). in a definition (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 2001, p. 346).
Text Cites of Electronic Resources In another case, Scanlon, Gallego, Duran, and Reyes (2005) found that the results should be “based on assumptions that individuals are capable of self-directed and self-initiated learning” (Methods section, para. 7). “The qualitative research methods discussed by Durango were challenged by Bambang and Totonumu” (Pival, Falcao, & Quinlan, 2009, “Problems with Qualitative Resarch,” para. 5). See APA (6th ed.), p. 172 Use name of section. Use shortened title in quotation marks.
Paraphrasing To avoid plagiarizing, express other people’s ideas, theories, and research in your own words. You still must give credit to the author(s) by citing the source using author-date of publication method. Self-plagiarism.
Paraphrasing “Signed into law in January 2002 by President George W. Bush, the No Child Let Behind (NCLB) Act signaled the nation’s most sweeping education reform of federal education policy in decades. NCLB laid the groundwork for education reforms and the president’s attempt to strengthen America’s education system” (Smith, 2004, p. 212). When the No Child Let Behind (NCLB) Act was signed into law in January of 2002 by President Bush, the law provided the most sweeping education reform in the United States in decades and provided a foundation for strengthening educational policy at the national level for years to come (Smith, 2004). Direct quote Paraphrased More than 50% reworded APA manual, p. 349
46% of Paper Plagiarized Found Using Turnitin Researchers have noted adjustment problems during a rising ninth grader’s transition period. The rising ninth graders’ grade point averages and attendance tend to decrease. The upcoming freshman experience feelings of connectedness, and co-curricular participation. They also experience an increase in anxiety concerning school procedures and older students, social difficulties. So far, transition programs have varied widely within schools, and designs range from a one-day overview of a new school to a full school year of career-focused curriculum. Although the scope of research varies as much as the programs themselves, several important aspects have been emphasized, and it is apparent that longer-term comprehensive transition programming can be beneficial. Dropout There is a high school dropout epidemic in America. Each year, almost one-third of all public high school students – and nearly one-half of all blacks, Hispanics and Native Americans – fail to graduate from public high school (Bridgeland, Dilulio, Jr., and Morison, 2006). The most common reasons for dropping out of high school are attitude towards school, poor school performance, and poor relationship with teachers. Dropouts also had lower academic performance, decreased motivation, and an increased sense of alienation from the school environment (Lan & Lanthier, 2003). Research also revealed that high school students often consider the social organizational changes and academic work as the most difficult part of transition (Akos, 2004). Researchers have noted adjustment problems duringin anxiety concerning school procedures and older students, social difficulties. transition programs have varied widely within schools, and designs range from a one-day overview of a new school to a full school year of career-focused curriculum. Although the scope of research varies as much as the programs themselves, several important aspects have been emphasized, and it is apparent that longer-term comprehensive transition programming can be beneficial.The most common reasons for dropping out of high schoolattitude towards school, poor school performance, andrelationship with teachers.had lower academic performance, decreased motivation, and an increased sense of alienation from the school environmentResearch alsothat high school students oftenthe social organizational changes and academic work as the most difficultof transition (Akos, Words in red were taken verbatim from a second source. The original idea was from Lan & Lanthier, but the source of this “paraphrase” was not cited. Only a few words were paraphrased. Words in blue were taken verbatim from one source. (Lan & Lanthier, 2003).
Basic Citation Styles Citations in text: Quinlan, Jones, Byron, and Montgomery (2008) stated Quinlan et al. (2008) observed (et al. is used after first use when there are three or more authors) Parenthetical citations in text: (Quinlan, Jones, Byron, & Montgomery, 2008) (Quinlan et al., 2008) One work by six or more authors: Wienhorst et al. (2009) (Wienhorst et al., 2009) See APA manual, p. 177 Always use et al. for six or more authors.
Groups as Authors First citation in text: American Psychological Association (APA, 2009) stated… Subsequent citations in text: APA (2009) observed… Parenthetical citations in text: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2009) (APA, 2008) NOTE: Always use abbreviation after it is introduced in the text. Do not switch back and forth between the full name and the abbreviation. See APA manual, pp. 106-107 for abbreviations, p. 177 for group authors American Psychological Association (APA) was founded in…
Groups as Authors First citation in text: American Psychological Association (APA, 2009) stated… Subsequent citations in text: APA (2008) observed… Parenthetical format, first and subsequent citations: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2009) (APA, 2008) NOTE: Always use abbreviation after it is introduced in the text. Do not switch back and forth between the full name and the abbreviation. See APA manual, p. 177 American Psychological Association (APA) was founded in…
A couple of experiments (Jordan, 2004, 2007) found…. A couple experiments (Eifrig & Gehring, 1976; Skinner, 1956) found.... Several studies (Department of Defense, 2002, 2008, in press-a; Smith & Jones, 2009a, 2009b) See APA manual, pp. 176-178. Citing Several Resources Within Same Parentheses Citing sevral resources
Secondary Sources Seidenberg and McClelland’s study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993) … Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993.) Models of reading aloud. Psychological Review, 100(5), 589-608. Text citation: List the primary source in the reference list entry:
Eight or More Authors in Reference List Zapeta, L., Ramirez, L., Jones, K., Smith, R. Bardeen, E., Stonebraker, M. B., … Obata, H. (2007). The greening of America. Journal of Environmental Studies, 12(4), 43-47. See APA manual, pp. 184, 198 When you have eight or more authors, list the first six authors’ names and then insert three ellipses, followed by the last author’s name. …
Spacing after Punctuation: Use the find and replace feature Students’ scores improved. The study demonstrated that … Brown, J. D. (2003). Pitfalls of formatting. Reading Teacher, 24(3), 22-24. Exception: Hyphenated initials Smith, E.-R. (2009).
Magazines, Newsletters, and Newspapers: Formatted Differently Than Journals Kandel, E. R., & Squire, L. R. (2000, November 10). Neuroscience: Breaking down scientific barriers. Science, 20, 1113-1120. The new health-care lexicon. (1993, Spring). Copy Editor, 4, 1-2. New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p. A12. Newspaper See APA manual, p. 200
How to find a DOI for an article? Ingham, R. J., Warner, A., Byrd, A., & Cotton, J. (2006). Speech effort measurement and stuttering: Investigating the chorus reading effect. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49(3), 660-670.
Reference with a DOI Ingham, R. J., Warner, A., Byrd, A., & Cotton, J. (2006). Speech effort measurement and stuttering: Investigating the chorus reading effect. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49(3), 660-670. doi:10.1044/1092 -4388(2006/048)
Article and Book with Assigned DOIs Borman, W. C. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(5), 443-449. doi:10.1037 /0002-9422.214.171.1242 Schaeffer, A. (2009). Life in the fast lane. doi:10.2312/ 2342113949 No URL is needed because the DOI functions as both a unique identifier of the content and a link to the content. No location or publisher is included for an electronic version of a book.
When to Use Retrieval Statements: If there is no DOI, then ask: Was it obtained from an open access source or can you provide URL?
Compare two formats Borman, W. C. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 43-49. doi:10.1037/0002-94126.96.36.1992 Borman, W. C. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 43-49. Borman, W. C. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 43-49. Retrieved from http://ojs.swin.edu.au /index.php/ejap/article/view/71/100 DOI available Exact URL for open access journal From a subscription database, no DOI (FSEHS recommendation)
In-Press Article and Advance Online Publication Clark, K. F. (in press). What can I say besides “sound it out”? Coaching word recognition in beginning reading. The Reading Teacher. Retrieved from http://rtprints.org/2009/1/clark.pdf Use (in press) when the article is not yet officially published. Use Advance online publication when it has not been formatted for final production. Use the exact URL when the article is informally published and available through a preprint archive. Update the reference with the final version of the reference when finally published. APA (6th ed.) pp. 199-200 Clark, K. F. (2009). What can I say besides “sound it out”? Coaching word recognition in beginning reading. The Reading Teacher. Advance online publication. doi:10.2134/palgrave.jnro.231623
Unpublished Dissertations (Such as NSU MARPs and Practicums) Batson-George, A. (2008). Evaluating the library training programs for graduate psychology students (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL. Identify unpublished dissertation or theses in parentheses after title. APA (6th ed.) pp. 207-208
DAI – vol.#, issue #, p. #, etc Dissertation from a Commercial Database: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database APA (6th ed.) p. 208 If the dissertation is available through PD&T, give the accession number in parentheses at the end of the reference. Use (UMI No. 9934633) Do not put a period after the number.
Published dissertation citation – 5 th ed. Clarke, D. C. (2001). Differences in student dropout rate, attendance rate, and grade point average after the implementation of the North Carolina Dropout Prevention/Drivers License Law (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 45689011) ProQuest Dissertations and Theses is a commercial database so include (Doctoral dissertation) in parentheses after the dissertation title. Use Available from since the name of the database is provided where the document can be obtained. Use (UMI No. XXXXXXXX) instead of (AAT XXXXXXXX). Dissertation Obtained from PD&T APA manual, p. 208, # 40
Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out. The New York Times. Retrieved http://www.nytimes.com/ No period after Web addresses. Online Newspaper Citation: “Give the URL of the home page when the online version of the article is available by search to avoid nonworking URLs” (APA, 2009, p. 201). Break URLs after slash or before period. (APA, p. 271) Before most punctuation (APA p. 192)
Electronic-Only Book Peltier-Davis, C., & Renwick, S. (Eds.) (2007). Caribbean libraries in the 21st century [Monograph]. Retrieved from http://www.infotoday.com/1212.html Include http:// in the URL and remove hyperlink. Do not use superscript for 21 st Use [Monograph] to clarify the type of resource. Use “Retrieved from” instead of “Available from” when the URL leads to information to the material itself rather than on how to obtain the cited material.
Archival Documents Discontinued journals, monographs, dissertations, or papers not formally published. If you cannot easily located through primary publishing channels, give the home or entry page URL for online archives such as ERIC and JSTOR. APA (6th ed.), p. 192
Boone, Young, & Associates. (1984). Minority enrollment in graduate and professional schools: Recruitment, admissions, financial assistance [Handbook]. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED396652) ERIC Citation
Data Sets U.S. Department of Education, Institution of Education Sciences, National Center for Educational Statistics. (2008). Profiles of undergraduates in U.S. postsecondary institutions [Data file]. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/globallocator/col_info _popup.asp?ID=136215 Italicize the title of a data set. In brackets immediately after the title, identify the type of source – [Data file]. APA manual, pp. 210-211
Software NVivo 8, SPSS, Excel -- proper name of standard software is only referenced in text. APA (6th ed.), pp. 210-211 Tunon, J. (2007). Citation analyzer [Computer software]. Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL. The name of the computer is not italicized. Put [Computer software] in brackets. If it is not published, then it needs to be cited in the reference list.
Measurement Instrument APA (6th ed.), pp. 210-211 Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2002). Multifactor Leadership Inventory. Published instrument. Available from http://www.mindgarden.com/ Malkasian, C. (2007). Malkasian Information Literacy Scale. Unpublished instrument. Available from http://www.nova.edu/malkasian/ Do not italicize the names of software, programs, or languages. Use Unpublished instrument. Unpublished instrument Published instrument
Ahah! What about using citation software? References Citation format?
Still confused? You can call your North Miami Beach Librarian at (800) 541-6682 ext. 28423 or email firstname.lastname@example.org Still confused?
Recommendation: Hire an Editor for Final Review dissertation
Considerations for Selecting an Editor: The university does not assume responsibility for a student's contractual agreement with a private editor or typist or for the quality of the editor's or typist's work. Fully communicate with editor about the services included, turn-around time, and costs. Don’t send your only copy of manuscript to the editor.