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16-1 Genes and Variation Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Genes and Variation 16-1
How Common Is Genetic Variation? Many genes have at least two forms, or alleles. All organisms have genetic variation An individual organism is heterozygous for many genes. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall http://mygenetic.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/allele.jpg http://www.ourwonderfulcrazylife.com/15_Aug_Nagamines-- Julie_s_purple___white_flowers.jpg
Variation and Gene Pools Genetic variation is studied in populations. A population is a group of individuals of the same species that interbreed. A gene pool consists of all genes, including all the different alleles, that are present in a population. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall http://phe.rockefeller.edu/barcode/blog/wp- content/uploads/2008/06/giraffes-3.gif
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Variation and Gene Pools The relative frequency of an allele is the number of times the allele occurs in a gene pool, compared with the number of times other alleles for the same gene occur. Relative frequency is often expressed as a percentage.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Variation and Gene Pools Gene Pool for Fur Color in Mice
Variation and Gene Pools In genetic terms, evolution is any change in the relative frequency of alleles in a population. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Sources of Genetic Variation The two main sources of genetic variation are mutations genetic shuffling that results from sexual reproduction. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Sources of Genetic Variation Mutations A mutation is any change in a sequence of DNA. Mutations occur because of mistakes in DNA replication or as a result of radiation or chemicals in the environment. Mutations do not always affect an organism’s phenotype.
Sources of Genetic Variation Gene Shuffling Most heritable differences are due to gene shuffling. Crossing-over increases the number of genotypes seen in offspring. Sexual reproduction produces different phenotypes, but does not change the relative frequency of alleles in a population. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall http://allnatural.iespalomeras.net/imagenes-web/dibujos/meiosis.gif
Single-Gene and Polygenic Traits The number of phenotypes produced for a given trait depends on how many genes control the trait. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Single-Gene and Polygenic Traits A single-gene trait is controlled by one gene that has two alleles. Variation in this gene leads to only two possible phenotypes. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Single-Gene and Polygenic Trait The allele for a widow’s peak is dominant over the allele for a hairline with no peak. However, the presence of a widow’s peak may be less common in a population. In real populations, phenotypic ratios are determined by the frequency of alleles as well as by whether the alleles are dominant or recessive.
Single-Gene and Polygenic Trait Many traits are controlled by two or more genes and are called polygenic traits. One polygenic trait can have many possible genotypes and phenotypes. Height in humans is a polygenic trait. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Normal Distribution
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Which of the following statements is TRUE? a)The relative frequency of an allele is not related to whether the allele is dominant or recessive. b)Mutations always affect an organism's phenotype. c)Crossing over decreases the number of different genotypes that appear in an offspring. d)Evolution does not affect the frequency of genes in a gene pool.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Most inheritable differences are a result of a)gene shuffling. b)frequency of alleles. c)mutations. d)DNA replication.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The main sources of inherited variation are a)gene shuffling and mutations. b)gene pools and frequencies. c)single-gene and polygenic traits. d)genotypes and phenotypes.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall A widow's peak in humans is an example of a(an) a)invariable trait. b)single-gene trait. c)polygenic trait. d)mutation.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall A graph of the length of the little finger on the left hand versus the number of people having fingers of a particular length is a bell-shaped curve. This indicates that finger length is a a)single-gene trait. b)polygenic trait. c)randomly inherited trait. d)strongly selected trait.
16-2 Evolution as Genetic Change Evolution as Genetic Change 16-2 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Evolution as Genetic Change Natural selection affects which individuals survive and reproduce and which do not. If an individual dies without reproducing, it does not contribute its alleles to the population’s gene pool. If an individual produces many offspring, its alleles stay in the gene pool and may increase in frequency. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 16-2 Evolution as Genetic Change
Evolution as Genetic Change Evolution is any change over time in the relative frequencies of alleles in a population. Populations, not individual organisms, can evolve over time. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 16-2 Evolution as Genetic Change
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Natural Selection on Single-Gene Traits Natural selection on single-gene traits can lead to changes in allele frequencies and thus to evolution.
Natural Selection on Single-Gene Traits Organisms of one color may produce fewer offspring than organisms of other colors. Those most visible to predators will be less likely to survive and reproduce. Therefore, that allele will become rare. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sciences/lifescience/physicalanthro pology/HumanGeneticEvolution/NaturalSelection/ketlwell.jpg
Natural Selection on Single-Gene Traits Black lizards may warm up faster on cold days. This may give them energy to avoid predators. In turn, they may produce more offspring. The allele for black color will increase in relative frequency. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Natural Selection on Polygenic Traits Natural selection can affect the distributions of phenotypes in any of three ways: directional selection stabilizing selection disruptive selection Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Natural Selection on Polygenic Traits Directional Selection When individuals at one end of the curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end, directional selection takes place. The range of phenotypes shifts as some individuals survive and reproduce while others do not. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Natural Selection on Polygenic Traits Stabilizing Selection When individuals near the center of the curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end of the curve, stabilizing selection takes place. This keeps the center of the curve at its current position, but it narrows the overall graph. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Natural Selection on Polygenic Traits Human babies born at an average mass are more likely to survive than babies born either much smaller or much larger than average. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Natural Selection on Polygenic Traits Disruptive Selection When individuals at the extreme ends of the curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle If the pressure of natural selection is strong enough and long enough, the curve will split, creating two distinct phenotypes. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Natural Selection on Polygenic Traits If average-sized seeds become scarce, a bird population will split into two groups: one that eats small seeds and one that eats large seeds. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Genetic Drift A random change in allele frequency is called genetic drift. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Genetic Drift In small populations, individuals that carry a particular allele may leave more descendants than other individuals do, just by chance. Over time, a series of chance occurrences of this type can cause an allele to become common in a population. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Genetic Drift Genetic drift may occur when a small group of individuals colonizes a new habitat. Individuals may carry alleles in different relative frequencies than did the larger population from which they came. The new population will be genetically different from the parent population.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Genetic Drift When allele frequencies change due to migration of a small subgroup of a population it is known as the founder effect. Original Population Founding Populations Descendent Populations
Evolution Versus Genetic Equilibrium The Hardy-Weinberg principle states that allele frequencies in a population will remain constant unless one or more factors cause those frequencies to change. When allele frequencies remain constant it is called genetic equilibrium. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Evolution Versus Genetic Equilibrium Five conditions are required to maintain genetic equilibrium from generation to generation: 1)there must be random mating, 2)the population must be very large, 3)there can be no movement into or out of the population, 4)there can be no mutations, and 5)there can be no natural selection. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Evolution Versus Genetic Equilibrium Random Mating Random mating ensures that each individual has an equal chance of passing on its alleles to offspring. In natural populations, mating is rarely completely random. Many species select mates based on particular heritable traits.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Evolution Versus Genetic Equilibrium Large Population Genetic drift has less effect on large populations than on small ones. Allele frequencies of large populations are less likely to be changed through the process of genetic drift.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Evolution Versus Genetic Equilibrium No Movement Into or Out of the Population Because individuals may bring new alleles into a population, there must be no movement of individuals into or out of a population. The population's gene pool must be kept together and kept separate from the gene pools of other populations.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Evolution Versus Genetic Equilibrium No Mutations If genes mutate, new alleles may be introduced into the population, and allele frequencies will change.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Evolution Versus Genetic Equilibrium No Natural Selection All genotypes in the population must have equal probabilities of survival and reproduction. No phenotype can have a selective advantage over another. There can be no natural selection operating on the population.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Which of the following patterns of natural selection on polygenic traits favors both extremes of a bell curve? a)stabilizing selection b)disruptive selection c)directional selection d)genetic drift
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Which of the following events could lead to genetic drift? a)A few new individuals move into a large, diverse population. b)A few individuals from a large, diverse population leave and establish a new population. c)Two large populations come back together after a few years of separation. d)The mutation rate in a large population increases due to pollution.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The situation in which allele frequencies remain constant in a population is known as a)genetic drift. b)the founder effect. c)genetic equilibrium. d)natural selection.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Which of the following conditions is required to maintain genetic equilibrium in a population? a)movement in or out of the population b)random mating c)natural selection d)small population
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall According to the Hardy-Weinberg principle, no evolution will take place if a)all five of the Hardy-Weinberg conditions are met. b)any one of the Hardy-Weinberg conditions is met. c)at least three of the Hardy-Weinberg conditions are met. d)none of the Hardy-Weinberg conditions are met.
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16-3 The Process of Speciation Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Process of Speciation 16-3
The Process of Speciation Natural selection and chance events can change the relative frequencies of alleles in a population and lead to speciation. Speciation is the formation of new species. A species is a group of organisms that breed with one another and produce fertile offspring. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Isolating Mechanisms What factors are involved in the formation of new species? The gene pools of two populations must become separated for them to become new species. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Isolating Mechanisms As new species evolve, populations become reproductively isolated from each other. When the members of two populations cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring, reproductive isolation has occurred.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Isolating Mechanisms Reproductive isolation can develop in a variety of ways, including: behavioral isolation geographic isolation temporal isolation
Isolating Mechanisms Behavioral Isolation occurs when two populations are capable of interbreeding but have differences in courtship rituals or other reproductive strategies that involve behavior. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Figure 14.3B
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Isolating Mechanisms Geographic Isolation occurs when two populations are separated by geographic barriers such as rivers or mountains. A. harrisi A. leucurus Figure 14.4
Isolating Mechanisms Geographic barriers do not guarantee the formation of new species. If two formerly separated populations can still interbreed, they remain a single species. Potential geographic barriers may separate certain types of organisms but not others. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Isolating Mechanisms Temporal Isolation occurs when two or more species reproduce at different times. http://museum.gov.ns.ca/mnh/nature/frogs/thumbs/i mages/wdfrog.jpg http://marissadenae.files.wordpress.com/2008/04/leopard _frog_large.jpg http://www.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/19/ima ges/ch19c1.jpg
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Testing Natural Selection in Nature Studies showing natural selection in action involve descendants of the finches that Darwin observed in the Galápagos Islands. The finches Darwin saw were different, but he hypothesized that they had descended from a common ancestor.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Testing Natural Selection in Nature Peter and Rosemary Grant tested Darwin’s hypothesis, which relied on two testable assumptions: For beak size and shape to evolve, there must be enough heritable variation in those traits to provide raw material for natural selection. Differences in beak size and shape must produce differences in fitness, causing natural selection to occur.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Testing Natural Selection in Nature The Grants tested these hypotheses on the medium ground finch on Daphne Major, one of the Galápagos Islands. During the rainy season, there is plenty of food. During droughts, food becomes scarce. Individual birds with different-sized beaks had different chances of survival during a drought.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Testing Natural Selection in Nature When food was scarce, individuals with large beaks were more likely to survive.
Testing Natural Selection in Nature The Grants provided evidence of the process of evolution. Beak size can be changed by natural selection. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall http://www.math.ucla.edu/~tao/finch.jpg
Speciation in Darwin's Finches Speciation in the Galápagos finches occurred by: founding of a new population geographic isolation changes in new population's gene pool reproductive isolation ecological competition Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Speciation in Darwin's Finches Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall A few finches— species A—travel from South America to one of the Galápagos Islands. There, they survive and reproduce.
Speciation in Darwin's Finches Geographic Isolation Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Some birds from species A cross to a second island. The two populations no longer share a gene pool.
Speciation in Darwin's Finches Changes in the Gene Pool Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Seed sizes on the second island favor birds with large beaks. The population on the second island evolves into population B, with larger beaks.
Speciation in Darwin's Finches Reproductive Isolation If population B birds cross back to the first island, they will not mate with birds from population A. Populations A and B are separate species. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Speciation in Darwin's Finches Ecological Competition As species A and B compete for available seeds on the first island, they continue to evolve in a way that increases the differences between them. A new species—C— may evolve. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Speciation in Darwin's Finches Continued Evolution This process of isolation, genetic change, and reproductive isolation probably repeated itself often across the entire Galápagos island chain.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Studying Evolution Since Darwin Scientific evidence supports the theory that living species descended with modification from common ancestors that lived in the ancient past. Scientists predict that as new fossils are found, they will continue to expand our understanding of how species evolved.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall When two species do not reproduce because of differences in mating rituals, the situation is referred to as a)temporal isolation. b)geographic isolation. c)behavioral isolation. d)reproductive isolation.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The most important factor involved in the evolution of the ground squirrels of the Grand Canyon appears to be a)temporal isolation. b)geographic isolation. c)behavioral isolation. d)different food sources.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall One finding of the Grants' research on generations of Galápagos finches was that a)natural selection did not occur in the finches b)natural selection can take place often and very rapidly. c)beak size had no effect on survival rate of the finches. d)natural selection was slow and permanent.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall All of the following played a role in speciation of Galápagos finches EXCEPT a)no changes in the gene pool. b)separation of populations. c)reproductive isolation. d)natural selection.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Beak size in the various groups of Galápagos finches changed primarily in response to a)climate. b)mating preference. c)food source. d)availability of water.