Presentation on theme: "Social Organization. Marriage, Family, Kinship Marriage –rules of sexual access –form of exchange – establishes alliances –accords a child full birth-status."— Presentation transcript:
Marriage, Family, Kinship Marriage –rules of sexual access –form of exchange – establishes alliances –accords a child full birth-status rights common to normal members of his society or social stratum. family -- smallest, organized unit of kin and non-kin who interact daily, providing for the domestic needs of children and ensuring their survival descent group -- who one is related to beyond marriage Alliance -- relations between descent groups
Forms of Marriage Monogamy = marriage between two partners Polygamy = plural marriage = an individual has more than one spouse –Polygyny = one man many wives –Polyandry = one woman many husbands No marriage Serial monogamy = preferred practice in the West?
Other Forms of Marriage Same Sex Marriages –A Nuer woman who is unable to have children is sometimes married as a "husband" to another woman who then is impregnated by a secret boyfriend. –The barren woman becomes the socially recognized father and thereby adds members to her father's patrilineal kin grouppatrilineal
Other Forms of marriage: Ghost Marriage A Nuer man may marry a woman as a stand-in for his deceased brother –the children that are born of this union will be considered descendents of the dead man -- the "ghost" is the socially recognized father –allows the continuation of the family line and succession to an important social position A Nuer woman of wealth may marry a deceased man to keep her wealth and power –there will be no living husband, though she may subsequently have children –She is, in effect, a widow who takes care of her husband's wealth and children until they are mature
Forms of Marriage Levirate & sororate –Levirate = a widow marries dead husband’s brother –Sororate = a widower marries dead wife’s sister Keeps inheritance within the same group
Levi-Strauss on Marriage as Exchange Levi-Strauss: "It's not the man that marries the maid, but field marries field, vineyard marries vineyard, cattle marries cattle” a set of rights the couple & their families obtain over one another, including rights to the couple's children
Marriage and wealth exchange Bridewealth –payment to wife and/or wife’s family –pays for loss of daughter Dowry –payment to husband and/or husband family –correlated to low women gender status –pays for adding women to descent group
MARRIAGE EXCHANGES marriage means alliances people don't just take a spouse they assume obligations to a group of in-laws often more a relationship between groups than one between individuals-marriage involves
are people buying their wives? Or how is a wife like a T.V.? the price is negotiated & rights are not given to the husband until the deal is done –if the woman proves barren or troublesome the goods are often refunded –women have voice in the transactions –women also has rights of her own in the marriage relationship (commodities don't) the woman & her kinfolk can also end the marriage if husband does not meet obligations
buying & selling of commodities is a one time event bridewealth establishes an enduring bundle of reciprocal rights & obligations between relatives of the couple that will last as long as the marriage lasts
Levi-Strauss and women as objects of exchange marriage systems - a form of exchange - "that as soon as I am forbidden a woman, she thereby becomes available to another man, and somewhere else a man renounces a woman who thereby becomes available to me." (Levi-Strauss:51) –wife givers & wife takers nevertheless, as exchange marriage implies reciprocity = obligations assumed in creation & maintenance of alliances
Marriage and the Family Variation in forms of marriage related to variations in forms of family Nuclear family = parents and children Extended family = 3 or more generations Joint family or collateral household = siblings, their spouses and children Forms of family change over time, over life cycle
Forms of Family & Subsistence Forager band = group of nuclear families Industrial economy = also nuclear family –Neither foragers nor industrial societies tied to the land –Emphasis on mobility, small-size, self-sufficiency Cultivators and Horticulturalists = extended, joint, collateral households –Extended family associated with sedentary cultivation, herding & private property –Keeps property in family –Provides needed labor
Family in Canada, Europe, US A unit bounded biologically & legally Associated with property Economic self sufficiency Associated with emotional life Associated with a space inside a home –Emerges in complex state-governed societies Keep neighbors out compared to others that add children & neighbors as kin
The Modern Euro-North American Family Family = nurturance, biofunction, love & affection, cooperation, enduring relationships, unconditional Market = sale of labour, negotiate contractual relations of business, competitive, temporary, contingent relations, law & legal sanctions family as last refuge against the state (domestic issues & police) family and litigation today - family becoming contract
Post-Marital Residence Patterns Patrilocal Matrilocal Bi-local Neolocal Avunculocal – living with mother’s brother or father’s sister Virilocal – living with husband’s relatives (patrilineal descent) Uxorilocal – living with wife’s relatives (matrilineal descent)
Post-Marital Residence Patterns 70% of all societies patrilocal Matrifocal households – women headed households with no permanently resident husband-father Patrifocal – 3 men and a baby? Post-marital residence patterns change during life cycle of marriage, over time
Kinship & Descent For some societies kinship & descent lines are the main way people organize themselves Kinship societies –The relationships established within the biological group and outside the biological group are coded in kin terms
Kinship Patterns Relations of descent (endogamy) –Consanguineal relationships (sanguine = red) Relations of blood Relations of alliance (exogamy) –Affinal relationships (affinity) –Through marriage (in-laws)
kinship and descent kinship as an idiom –a way of expressing social relations and the exchanges, rights, and obligations implied selective –each system emphasizes different relations kinship principles define social groups –produces forms of social stratification locate people within those groups position people and groups in relation to one another both in space and time
kin terms sometimes mark specific relationships, sometimes lump together several genealogical relations lineal relatives/consanguines - ancestor, descendent on direct line of descent to or from ego collateral kin - all other biological kin, siblings, nieces, nephews, aunts, uncles affines - relatives by marriage
Kinship Symbols A circle represents a female A triangle represents a male An equal sign represents a marriage A vertical line represents descent or parentage A horizontal line represents a sibling bond. Relationships are traced through a central individual labelled EGO.
UNILINEAL DESCENT (unilateral) descent group membership figured exclusively through female or male side matrilineal descent patrilineal descent
Lineal and Collateral Kin Lineal Kin - ancestors or descendants Collateral Kin - sibling branches
Matrilineal and Patrilineal Kin Patrilineal, or agnatic, relatives are identified by tracing descent exclusively through males from a founding male ancestor. Matrilineal, or uterine, relatives are identified by tracing descent exclusively through females from a founding female ancestor.
Matrilateral and Patrilateral Kin Patrilateral Kin Matrilateral Kin
cross relatives kin on each side, who are neither patrilineal or matrilineal cross cousins are of particular importance, especially for some marriage systems Cross cousins can be identified as the children of opposite sexed siblings (of a brother and sister) and parallel cousins as the children of same sexed siblings (of two brothers or two sisters).
Matrilineal and Patrilineal Kin Patrilineal Kin - linked through males. Matrilineal Kin - linked through females Cross Relatives - cross sexed linked
Bilateral Descent Also called cognatic descent Canada, US, Europe ego sees his or her relatives on both sides as being of equal closeness & relevance the degree of closeness is based on generational distance separating the individuals (our system)
Strengths of Bilateral System Overlapping membership Widely extended, can form broad networks Flexible Useful for groups that do not live in same place Useful when valued resources are limited
Extensions of kin groups lineage matrilineage patrilineage segmentary lineage clan phratry moiety kindred
Structures of Descent lineages (patri & matri) - common ancestor clan – several lineages common ancestor, usually large groups that are associated with mythical ancestors phratry - unilineal descent group composed of a number of supposedly related clans moieties - means half, when an entire society is divided into 2 unilineal descent groups many societies have 2 or more types of descent groups in various combinations some have lineages & clans, others may have clans & phrateries but no lineages
Lineage a corporate descent group whose members trace their genealogical links to a common ancestor corporate = shares resources in common –own property –organize labour –assign status –regulate relations with other groups endures beyond individual members
Clan (or sib) a non-corporate descent group whose members claim descent from a common ancestor without knowing the genealogical inks to that ancestor often produced through fission of lineage into newer, smaller lineage
characteristics of the clan greater genealogical depth than lineage lacks residential unity (in contrast to lineage) a ceremonial unit that meets on special occasions handle important integrative functions may regulate marriage outside clan
clans are often dependent on symbols as integrative feature totem: a symbol of a clan’s mythical origin that reinforces clan member’s common descent totem from Ojibwa ototeman; he is a relative of mine
Phratries and Moieties less common forms of descent groups phratry: a unilineal descent group composed of at least two clans that supposedly share a common ancestry, whether they do or not if a society is broken into only two large groups (clan or phratry), each group is referred to as a MOIETY moieties, phratries, clans and lineages –from most inclusive to the least inclusive –all typically associated with exogamy
Bilateral Kindred a person's bilateral set of relatives who may be called upon for some purpose no two persons belong exactly to the same kin group ego centered with kindred of close relatives spreading out on both your mother's and father's sides connected only because of you
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