Presentation on theme: "Summer First Aid— Bites, Stings & Other Nasty Things"— Presentation transcript:
1 Summer First Aid— Bites, Stings & Other Nasty Things
2 The Creepers, Crawlers and Flyers Bite/Sting Symptoms: Sharp, pinprick sensation; moderate burning pain; one or more bumps.Sometimes the creatures leave stingers and sometimes not.
3 The FlyersMosquitoes, Honeybees, Hornets, Yellow Jackets, Bumblebees, Black Flies, Wasps, Gnats, Midgets or No-see-ums.For mosquito bites—apply paste: 1 tsp baking soda + 1 tsp water—reduces swelling and soothe itching.
4 The Flyers Honeybee NEVER use a tweezers Scrape Cold compresses Only the honeybee leaves it’s stinger in the skin-they sting once and then they die.If you are stung by a bee, carefully scrape away the stinger in a side to side motion with a straight edge object, such as a credit card, never use a tweezer or your fingernail to get a grip on the stinger to pull it out- you could squeeze the venom sac and push more poison into your skinCold compresses and steroid creams can help ease most bites, along with oral antihistamines. But seek medical attention when swelling extends well beyond the bite site, since you may need a prescription med.If you have a severe reaction to an insect sting, ask your dr to prescribe an epinephrine kit
5 The FlyersIf you receive multiple stings, this could lead to anaphylactic shock or a toxic reaction including:Vomiting, diarrhea, fever muscle spasm and loss of consciousness.Prepare to treat anaphylactic shock with an Epi-pen if available or call 911.
6 The CreepersTicks: American Dog Tick, Lone Star Tick, Rocky Mountain Wood Tick. Symptoms:Flat red spots that blanch if pressed. They turn to blood spots within 2 to 4 days.Some can transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever— spots appear on wrists and ankles, then palms of hands and soles of feet before spreading farther.Or Lyme Disease—Fever, severe headaches and general body pain appears within 3 days to 3 weeks after biteLyme disease – look for the bull’s eye rash, seed –sized ticks are most common in the midwest, rash expands over a few daysWear long pants , long sleeved shirts, socks and closed-toe shoes when you are in woodsy or grassy areas during late spring and summer. Tuck shirts into pants and pants into socks. Wear light colors to make it easier to spot a tick. Apply insect repellent containing deet, picaridin or oil of lemon eucalyptus. Inspect your skin when you go indoors and remove any attached ticks, preferably with a tweezers so you remove the entire tickInexpensive antibiotics are very effective and prevent serious long term complications
7 The CreepersFleas: 20 species—feed on blood of humans—carried indoors by pets. Symptoms:Cause excruciatingly itchy, tiny, pink bumps clustered in groups.Treatment—ice or cool, damp compresses to soothe the itching; cover bites with paste made with meat tenderizer and a little water.May use OTC oral antihistamine, such as Benadryl, apply an OTC hydrocortisone cream.
8 The CreepersChiggers: Inject an enzyme that dissolves skin cells which they then suck up. Symptoms:Uncontrollable itching where clothing frequently meets the skin; swelling, redness, blisters and scabs.Treatment: Wash with soap and water, dab on antiseptic to prevent infection, apply cold compress to soothe itching and take an OTC oral antihistamine.
9 The Crawlers Brown Recluse Spider Leaves symptoms of intensely painful, pimple-like bump surrounded by bumpy rash.Skin may turn bluish gray as rash fades.Feels like a bruise with one or two small puncture marks in the center.Skin becomes red and swollen.
10 The Crawlers Black Widow Spider Leaves a sharp stabbing pain followed by a dull ache.Pain becomes extremely intense.Whole body discomfort may begin within 30 minutes.Look for a faint red halo surroundinga tiny puncture wound.
11 The CrawlersWith both spider bites their venom is activated by heat. Treatment:Reduce swelling and apply cold compresses for minutes.Elevate the affected area.Take aspirin or ibuprofen to relieve pain or swelling.See physician—the venom can cause extensive tissue damage, kidney failure and coma in children.With the black widow spider, you may be given an antivenin to counteract the poison as well as a tetanus shot.
12 The CrawlersFire AntsSmall, yellow, red or black ants living in anthills.Extremely aggressive and often attack in numbers.Symptoms: sharp, stinging pain; swelling and redness often arranged in a circle.Blisters form within hours and clear up in about 10 days—may leave scars.With multiple stings, some people develop fever and malaise and may need immediate medical care.Treatment: cool compresses, paste of baking soda mixed with water applied to area, aspirin or ibuprofen to relieve pain and swelling.
13 Signs of Infection Area around wound swollen and red. Area feels warm or throb with pain.Discharge/pusFeverRed streak that progresses from wound in the direction of the heart.
14 Shock/Internal Bleeding Signals Swollen, tender, bruised or hard areas of body such as abdomen.Rapid weak pulse.Skin feels cool or moist and looks pale or bluish.Excessive thirst.Victim becomes confused, faint, drowsy or unconscious.
15 Care for Shock Have victim lie down. Control any external bleeding. Help maintain normal body temperature.Elevate legs about 12 inches unless you suspect head, neck, or back injuries, possible broken bones to hips or legs.Do not give them waterCall 911
16 Knocked Out TeethMost can be replanted if you act quickly and tooth is cared for properly.Pick up tooth by chewing edge; not the root—do not rub or handle the root.If you can put tooth back into its socket, do so. If not, preserve the tooth by placing it in a closed container of cool, fresh milk if available or water and take to dentist.
17 BurnsStop the burning by cooling it in running water for several minutesApply a loose, dry, clean dressing to prevent infection.Do NOT put ointments on serious burns! They seal in heat and do little to relieve pain.Do NOT break blisters! They help prevent infection.Take to physician if serious.If minor burn that doesn’t need medical care—wash with soap and water, keep it clean, may apply antibiotic ointment, watch for signs of infection.
19 Radiation Burn Sunburn can cause painful burns that may blister. Reduce your exposure.Avoid sun exposure between 10am—2pm.Wear protective clothing.Protect your skin with sunscreens with a SPF minimum of 15—apply minutes before exposure and reapply every minutes.Apply sunscreen that protects both UVB & UVA rays.Sunglasses should have UV absorption of at least 90%
20 Heat IllnessHeat cramps—may have painful muscular spasms in legs or abdomen.Heat exhaustion—may feel cool, moist, pale or flush, nausea/vomiting.Heat stroke—may have red, hot dry skin.Treatment: Get victim to cool place.Loosen tight clothing and remove perspiration—soaked clothing.Apply cool, wet cloths to skin, fan patient, if conscious give cool water or sports drink— massage and lightly stretch muscle that has spasm.
21 Diabetic EmergencyGive victim some form of sugar if they are conscious.Call 911 if they don’t respond quickly or if they become unconscious.
22 Poison Ivy, Sumac, and Oak Poison ivy and oak have leaves clustered in threes, with the longest stalk in the center. Poison ivy are oval and smooth edged . Poison oak are lobed, like those of an oak tree. Most in a shrub form. Urushiol, an almost invisible oil that comes from any cut or crushed part of the plant. It can be carried for up to 3 days on thepaws or fur of animals. It can be carried on shoes, clothing or on gardening tools for weeks or months
23 Poison Ivy, Oak and Sumac Usually exposure to these poisonous plants can be treated at home with self-care. TipsWash suspected areasCool compresses.OTC lotionA soak in lukewarm water mixed with an oatmeal bath productWash with soap and water as quickly as you can, like within the hourItchy, blistery rash will develop within 2-3 days. Try not to scratch, doesn’t spread it but can lead to infectionCool shower and compresses, or hydrocortisone cream can ease discomfortConsider IvyBlock, an over the counter clay-based lotion, if you have a history of reactions or you think exposure may be unavoidableRemedies such as Calamine lotion, and oatmeal baths can help dry the oozing blisters.If necessary ask your dr about a prescription corticosteroid
24 Animal Bites Minor wound Wash wound Control bleeding Apply antibiotic ointment; coverGet medical attention if wound bleeds severely or if you suspect animal has rabies; call 911 and animal control personnel.
25 Snake BiteWash woundImmobilize injured area, keep area lower than the heartCall 911Carry victim if possible or if they must walk, have them walk slowly.Do NOT apply tourniquet