Presentation on theme: "MOSQUITO, TICK, AND SPIDER BORNE DISEASES"— Presentation transcript:
1MOSQUITO, TICK, AND SPIDER BORNE DISEASES Occupational Health and Safety Program
2Getting Credit Getting Credit and Certificate it and Certificate To get full credit and certificate for this class, the class facilitator should do the following:*Present the Power Point Presentation and have all students study any handouts.*Enter the appropriate information into the facility’s training records.*Send the following information by to the Cabinet’s Safety Coordinator for each student in the class:-name,-work address,-work title,-name of class,-date of class.Safety Coordinator-Richard T. Owen atThe certificates will be returned to the class facilitator for distribution.
3Topics Ticks, Mosquitoes, and Spiders Common Tick, Mosquito, Spider Borne DiseasesLyme DiseaseRocky Mountain Spotted FeverWest Nile VirusPersonal Protection Measures
9TICKS - Precautions Deer Tick Proper Clothing. When entering tick-infested areas, wear long-sleeved shirts and long trousers with tight-fitting cuffs. Wear light-colored clothing. Ticks are easier to see on a light background. Repellents. Use an insect repellent containing the active ingredient diethyl toluamide (DEET). Apply to clothing and areas of exposed skin such as hands, wrists, ankles and neck. Protect dogs with flea and tick collars. Be sure to read and follow label directions.
10Common Tick Borne Diseases DISEASE CAUSATIVE AGENT Babesiosis ProtozoaTularemia BacteriaLyme disease BacteriaRocky Mountain spotted fever RickettsiaHuman monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) EhrlichiaHuman granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) EhrlichiaRelapsing fever BacteriaColorado tick fever VirusPowassan encephalitis VirusTick paralysis NeurotoxinSouthern Tick-Associated Rash Illness (STARI) BacteriaWhile new tick-borne pathogens, or new strains of currently recognized pathogens, are continually emerging, today there are approximately eleven (11) tick-borne illnesses of concern in the U.S.: Lyme disease, as I mentioned, is the most prevalent with close to 24,000 case having been reported by the CDC in That’s followed by Rocky Mountain spotted fever, which, unlike its name would suggest is most common in the eastern half of the U.S., North Carolina routinely reporting the highest number of cases. The first outbreaks of RMSF were noted in the Bitterroot Valley of Montana, and the disease agent was isolated and studied at the Rocky Mountain Laboratories, hence its name which has stuck, despite the diseases epidemiological shift eastward cases of RMSF were reported in the U.S. in Then there are the human ehrlichioses: human monocytic and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HME and HGE, respectively). The two diseases are caused by different organisms that attack different types of white blood cells and that are transmitted by different tick species. The names derive from the types of white blood cells that are favored for attack, i.e. monocytes and granulocytes. Just under 1000 total cases of human ehrlichiosis were reported in Babesiosis is a deadly, malaria-like illness. It’s not yet nationally reportable. STARI, or southern tick-associated rash illness, as the CDC has dubbed the “Lyme-like illness” that occurs most commonly in the southeastern quadrant of the U.S. is also not yet reportable. Tularemia is of concern because of its virulence and weaponization potential. And there are a few others that occur with less frequency.All of these tick-borne illnesses are caused by microorganisms (either a bacteria, virus, or parasite) with the exception of tick paralysis which is caused by a neurotoxic chemical that flows along with the ticks saliva into the bite site. It leads to an ascending paralysis, which can result in death. Fortunately, if the tick is discovered and removed, symptoms usually resolve fairly quickly and without serious sequelae.There are over 800 species of ticks worldwide, approximatley 150 of which are present in North America. Not all ticks transmit every disease. Different tick species transmit different diseases or groups of diseases. In fact, three species account for the majority of tick bite incidents in this country, although there are many others that are involved but much less frequently.
11Lyme DiseaseLyme disease is an infectious disease that often begins with a characteristic rash, and which can later involve the joints, nervous system and/or heart.Most common vector borne disease in the United States.
12Lyme DiseaseThe bacteria that cause Lyme Disease is transmitted by the bite of the Deer Tick.The tick must be attached for several hours for transmission to occur (usually hours).Lyme disease can be debilitating but is rarely fatal.Lyme disease is not transmitted person to person.
13Lyme DiseaseIncubation period is usually 7 to 14 days following tick exposure.Can be re-infected.
14Lyme Disease Symptoms“Bull’s-Eye” Rash at the site of infection, usually within 1 month.May appear more like a bruise on dark-skinned individuals.Flu-Like Symptomsfatigueheadachesore/aching muscles & jointsfeversore throatswollen glands
15Lyme Disease Prevention Proper wearing of work clothing.Routine tick checks.Prompt & Proper tick removal.Use insect repellant.If possible, stay out of tick infested areas.
17Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever RMSF is a serious tick-borne disease transmitted by the American Dog Tick and Rock Mountain Wood Tick.
18Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Incubation period: 5 to 10 days.Rash appears 2 to 5 days after onset of fever.The majority of RMSF victims must be hospitalized.Mortality rate is 3 to 5 percent.RMSF attacks the cells that line the blood vessels.Damage to the major organs is very possible.
19Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Signs and Symptoms High FeverSevere HeadacheNauseaMuscle PainChillsExtreme ExhaustionRed Spotted RashAbdominal PainDiarrheaJoint Pain
20Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Signs and Symptoms RMSF can be a severe illness, and the majority of patients are hospitalized.
21Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Prevention Wear light colored clothing which allows you to see ticks that are crawling on your clothing.Tuck pants legs into socks so that ticks cannot crawl up the inside of pant leg.Apply repellents.Repellents containing permethrin can be spray on boots and clothing and will last for several days.
22Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Prevention Repellents containing DEET can be applied to the skin, but will last only few hours before reapplication is necessary.Conduct a body check upon return from potentially tick infested areas by searching the entire body for ticks.Remove any tick found on the body.
24Tick RemovalUse tweezers to firmly grasp the tick’s mouthparts up against the skin.Pull back firmly and steadily.Be patient – the tick’s central mouthpart is covered with sharp barbs, sometimes making removal difficult.
25Tick RemovalAfter removing the tick wash the wound site with soap & water and apply an antiseptic.Save the tick for future analysis.You may discard the tick after one month.All known tick-borne diseases generally show up within one month of infection.
26Tick RemovalDO NOT!Pull back sharply, as this may tear the mouthparts from the body, leaving them embedded in the skin.Squeeze or crush the body of the tick because this may force infective body fluids through the mouthparts and into the wound site.
27Tick RemovalDO NOT!Apply substances such as petroleum jelly, finger nail polish, finger nail polish remover, repellents, pesticides, or a lighted match to the tick while it is attached.These materials are either ineffective, or worse, might agitate the tick and cause it to force more infective fluid into the wound site.
29Year 2002-over 4,000 cases including 284 deaths West Nile VirusYear 2002-over 4,000 cases including 284 deaths
30West Nile Encephalitis West Nile Encephalitis is an infection of the brain caused by the West Nile Virus.Encephalitis means swelling of the brain.Humans get West Nile Virus from infected mosquitoes.West Nile fatality rate is approximately 15%.Increased severity in individuals over fifty.
31West Nile Encephalitis Symptoms FeverHead AcheBody AchesNauseaDisorientationParalysisComaDeath
32West Nile Encephalitis-How it Spreads Infected Mosquitoes-Most often.Transfusions, Transplants, and Mother to Child-Very small number.Not through touching.
33West Nile Encephalitis Prevention Proper wearing of work clothing. Light colored clothing can help you see mosquitoes that land.Use mosquito repellent on exposed skin and permethrin on clothing.Mosquitoes are most active at dawn, dusk, & early evening.Get rid of mosquito breeding sites.
36Spiders-Brown Recluse (Fiddleback) One of few spiders in U.S. known to be very harmful to humans.Regarded by some as more dangerous than the Black Widow Spider because it is considered a house spider and isn’t as simple to identify.Long, thin gray to dark brown legs covered with very short dark hairs; adults are yellowish-tan to dark brown.Dark brown or black violin or fiddle on its back with violin’s neck pointing toward the rear of its body.
37Spiders-Brown Recluse (Fiddleback) Both male and female spiders are similar in appearance and are equally venomous.Other spiders which have markings that resemble violins-Brown Recluse does not have any markings on its abdomen (tan to brown in color).Average size of adult is about the size of a quarter.
38Spiders-Brown Recluse (Fiddleback) Location-Prefer warm, dry locations.Inside dressers Behind furnitureIn showers and bathtubs GaragesUnderneath furniture Storage shedsIn bed sheets of infrequently used beds AtticsIn stacks of clothes Cellars/basementsBehind baseboards FirewoodIn boxes Near furnacesIn closets Near water heaters
39Spiders-Brown Recluse (Fiddleback) Highest concentration of these spiders are in central U.S. (tan area)
40Spiders-Brown Recluse Dangers to Humans One of few spiders that can pierce human skin.Non-aggressive.Typically hunt at night.Most people are bitten by them through accidental contact with areas where they prefer to dwell.Bite frequently goes unnoticed until the serious after effects start.Active in temperatures ranging from 45 to 110 degrees F, but can bite at any time of the year in a heated building.
41Spiders-Brown Recluse Dangers to Humans Tissue Necrosis (tissue death)Area may become painful, itchy, hot, swollen, red, and tender.Irregular ulcerous sore will often appear (bull’s eye pattern).Prompt attention is best treatment.If killing tissue, will turn purple and then black.Systemic Symptoms-If gets in bloodstream*Fever *Chills *Sweating *Nausea*Vomiting *Joint Pain *Jaundice *Seizures*Blood in urine *Coma *Kidney failure*Hemolysis
42Spiders-Black WidowIdentification is based upon the pattern of red coloration on the abdomen underside and geographic distribution.In Kentucky-Southern Black WidowNorthern Black Widow
45Spiders-Black WidowTimid spiders, not known to aggressively bite humans.Only the female has venom.Venom is a neurotoxin.After being bitten, may feel painful rigidity in the abdomen muscles and tightness in chest.Other symptoms-increase blood pressure, rise in body temperature, nausea, and sweating.Death is uncommon-less than 1% of the reported cases.Seek medical attention if you suspect you have been bitten. Without medical attention, the symptoms can last 5 days and a complete recovery may take weeks.
46Personal Protective Measures-Spiders Watch where you place your hands.Shake out clothing and shoes before putting them on.Wear gloves and long sleeved shirts when cleaning out areas (inside/outside), boxes or containers that are usually left undisturbed.Difficult to kill with most insecticides. Pesticides are usually ineffective unless directly sprayed on the spider. However, even something as simple as water can have the same effect when sprayed directly.Routine, thorough building cleaning.
47Personal Protective Measures-Spiders Caulk/seal any cracks and crevices in buildings where spiders exist.Install screens or replace damaged screens as appropriate.Remove potential breeding places-woodpiles, leaf litter, debris, and rocks.Seal boxes and storage bags. Keep them away from a wall where possible.Reduce clutter in basements, attics, and closets.
48Personal Protective Measures: Insect Repellents Use insect repellents that contain DEET with a strength of at least 33%.A stronger concentration is not necessary.Insect repellent should be reapplied every 4-5 hours due to perspiration and activities that cause it to be rubbed off by contact.
49Personal Protective Measures: Permethrin Spray permethrin aerosol to clothing. DO NOT apply this chemical to clothing while wearing them.Permethrin is a very strong chemical. DO NOT apply it directly to skin. Permethrin is for clothing only.