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Semantics: The Analysis of Meaning Deny A. Kwary Airlangga University.

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Presentation on theme: "Semantics: The Analysis of Meaning Deny A. Kwary Airlangga University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Semantics: The Analysis of Meaning Deny A. Kwary Airlangga University

2 Lexical Semantics (cf. p.274) Semantic properties: The components of meaning of a word. Semantic feature: A notational device for expressing the presence or absence of semantic properties by pluses and minuses. Example of componential analysis: baby is [+ young], [+ human], [– abstract].

3 Identify the features (1) 1. (a) widow, mother, sister, aunt, maid (b) widower, father, brother, uncle, valet (b) widower, father, brother, uncle, valet  The (a) and (b) words are  The (a) words are  The (b) words are [+ human] [+ female] [+ male] 2. (a) bachelor, paperboy, pope, chief (b) bull, rooster, drake, ram (b) bull, rooster, drake, ram  The (a) and (b) words are  The (a) words are  The (b) words are [+ male] [+ human] [+ animal]

4 Identify the features (2) 3. (a) table, stone, pencil, cup, house, ship (b) milk, alcohol, rice, soup, mud (b) milk, alcohol, rice, soup, mud  The (a) words are  The (b) words are [+ count] [- count] 4. (a) pine, elm, sycamore (b) dandelion, aster, daisy (b) dandelion, aster, daisy  The (a) and (b) words are  The (a) words are  The (b) words are [+ plant] [+ tree] [+ flower]

5 Semantic Relations among Words (p. 269) Synonymy: words that have the same meanings, e.g. start & begin. Synonymy: words that have the same meanings, e.g. start & begin. Antonymy: words that are opposites in meanings, e.g. hot & cold. Antonymy: words that are opposites in meanings, e.g. hot & cold. Synonymy or Antonymy (p. 307) Flourish – thrive Flourish – thrive Intelligent – stupid Intelligent – stupid Casual – informal Casual – informal Flog – whip Flog – whip Drunk – sober Drunk – sober a.synonym b.antonym c.synonym d.synonym e.antonym

6 Semantic Relations among Words (cf. page 270; with critical notes) Polysemy: A word which has two or more related meanings, e.g. bright: ‘shining’ ; ‘intelligent’ Polysemy: A word which has two or more related meanings, e.g. bright: ‘shining’ ; ‘intelligent’ Homonymy: A word which has two or more entirely distinct meanings, e.g. club: ‘a social organization’ ; ‘a blunt weapon’. Homonymy: A word which has two or more entirely distinct meanings, e.g. club: ‘a social organization’ ; ‘a blunt weapon’. Homophony: Different words pronounced the same but spelled differently, e.g. two and too. Homophony: Different words pronounced the same but spelled differently, e.g. two and too. Homography: Different words spelled the same but pronounced differently, e.g. minute and minute. Homography: Different words spelled the same but pronounced differently, e.g. minute and minute.

7 Identifying homophones 1. [steə]  1. Stair, stare 2. [weist]  2. waste, waist 3. [si:liη]  3. sealing, ceiling 4. [kju:]  4. cue, queue 5. [sent]  5. sent, cent, scent

8 Identifying homographs 1.Read 2.Wind 3.Live 4.Tear 5.Invalid 6.Bow 7.Dove

9 Identifying Homonyms in Jokes 1. Time flies like an arrow Fruit flies like a banana Fruit flies like a banana 2. Policeman: Why have you parked your car here? Motorist: Because the sign says “Fine for Parking”. Motorist: Because the sign says “Fine for Parking”. 3. Customer: Have you got half-inch nails? Ironmonger: Yes, sir. Ironmonger: Yes, sir. Customer: Then could you scratch my back. It’s very itchy Customer: Then could you scratch my back. It’s very itchy

10 More semantic relations among words Hyponymy: Words whose meanings are specific instances of a more general word, e.g. isosceles and equilateral are hyponyms of the word triangle. Hyponymy: Words whose meanings are specific instances of a more general word, e.g. isosceles and equilateral are hyponyms of the word triangle. Metonymy: A word substituted for another word with which it is closely associated, e.g. diamond for a baseball field. Metonymy: A word substituted for another word with which it is closely associated, e.g. diamond for a baseball field. Retronymy: An expression that would once have been redundant, but which societal or technoligical changes have made nonredundant, e.g. silent movies  movies  silent movies Retronymy: An expression that would once have been redundant, but which societal or technoligical changes have made nonredundant, e.g. silent movies  movies  silent movies

11 That’s All For Today See You Next Week Deny A. Kwary Airlangga University


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