Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 Insect and Arthropod Bites and Stings."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 18 Insect and Arthropod Bites and Stings
Lesson Objectives (1 of 2) Describe the bites of poisonous spiders, including black widow spiders, brown recluse spiders, and tarantulas, and explain how to manage such bites. Recognize a scorpion and its sting and know how to manage such stings. Assess and treat tick bites and know that some ticks can transmit Lyme disease to humans.
Lesson Objectives (2 of 2) Assess and manage mosquito bites. Identify lice and no how to eradicate a lice infestation. Assess and treat insect stings and identify the various types of insect repellents.
Spider Bites (2 of 8) Black widow spider –What to look for: A sharp, pinprick sensation Faint red bite marks Muscle stiffness and cramps affecting the bitten limb and ascending to the abdomen and thorax Headache, fever, chills, heavy sweating, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and severe abdominal pain
Spider Bites (3 of 8) Black widow spider –What to do: Catch the spider for identification. Clean the bite with soap and water. Use an ice pack on the bite to relieve pain. Administer pain medication orally. Check breathing. Seek medical attention immediately.
Spider Bites (4 of 8) Brown recluse spider Courtesy of Kenneth Cramer, Monmouth College
Spider Bites (5 of 8) Brown recluse spider –What to look for: Bite with bull’s-eye appearance and a blister at the site with redness and swelling Local pain Fever, weakness, vomiting, joint pain, and a rash
Spider Bites (6 of 8) Brown recluse spider –What to do: Catch or kill the spider for identification. Clean the bite with soap and water. Use an ice pack on the bite to relieve pain. Administer pain medication orally. Seek medical attention promptly if large areas of inflammation develop.
Tick Bites (2 of 7) What to do: –Difficult to remove –Improper or partial removal can lead to local infection. –Use tweezers or a tick removal device to grab the tick close the skin and pull steadily; or lift slightly upward, and then pull parallel to the skin. –If head remains embedded, remove with a needle.
Tick Bites (3 of 7) What to do: –Wash the bite with soap and water. –Apply an ice pack for pain. –Watch for signs of local infection. –Watch for symptoms of tick-borne illness. –Seek medical attention if symptoms appear.
Tick Bites (4 of 7) Lyme disease –A potentially serious tick-borne infection –Affects the joints, skin, heart, and nervous system –Transported by ticks from deer and mice to humans
Tick Bites (5 of 7) Lyme disease –What to look for: Early stages Distinctive rash Fatigue Fever Chills Weakness Headache Stiff neck Muscle or joint pain
Tick Bites (6 of 7) Lyme disease –What to look for: Later stages One-sided paralysis Arthritis Meningitis Nerve damage Heart damage
Tick Bites (7 of 7) Lyme disease –What to do: If symptoms appear within a month of a tick bite, consult a doctor. Antibiotic treatment is usually curative.
Mosquito Bites Mosquitoes carry many diseases. Use an effective repellent and mosquito netting.
Lice (2 of 2) What to do: –Treat with lice shampoo or lotion containing permethrin, pyrethrins with piperonyl butoxide, or lindane. –Wash clothes, sleeping bags, pillow cases, or other bedding in soap and hot water. –Do not share clothes or hairbrushes.
Insect Stings (1 of 7) Honeybee Bumblebee Yellow jacket Wasp Fire ant
Insect Stings (2 of 7) What to look for: –Stinger may be visible. –The sooner symptoms develop, the more serious the reaction.
Insect Stings (3 of 7) What to look for: –Local reactions Brief pain Redness Swelling Itching Heat
Insect Stings (4 of 7) What to look for: –Generalized reactions Diffuse skin redness Hives Swelling of lips or tongue Wheezing Abdominal cramps Diarrhea
Insect Stings (5 of 7) What to look for: –Life-threatening reactions: Inability to breath due to swelling of the air passages and throat Bluish or gray skin color Seizures Unconsciousness
Insect Stings (6 of 7) What to do: –Scrape the stinger and venom sac off the skin. –Wash the sting with soap and water. –Apply cold to the site for 15 to 20 minutes. –Give a mild analgesic. –Use hydrocortisone and antihistamines to reduce local symptoms.
Insect Stings (7 of 7) What to do: –Use a paste of baking soda and water to absorb venom and relieve pain. –Observe for at least 60 minutes for serious allergic reaction. –If hives or redness and swelling occur with difficulty breathing, administer epinephrine.
Insect Repellents Natural repellents (citronella and lemon eucalyptus) Synthetic repellents (DEET and dimethylphthalate) Insecticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, and alphamethrin)