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Making a Pedigree Chart A family history of a genetic condition.

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1 Making a Pedigree Chart A family history of a genetic condition

2 Quick Review Genotype = what genes someone has Genes are usually represented by a letter, a capital letter for the dominant trait, a small case for the recessive. Example: Tongue Rolling is dominant, so we use R to represent the tongue rolling Inablility to roll your tongue is recessive so we use r to represent the non-rolling gene For every trait, you get a gene from each parent

3 Genotypes and Phenotypes Mom and Dad are Rr-that is their genotype, they can also be described as heterozygous-they have 1 of each gene What is their PHENOTYPE? The youngest son has a genotype of rr-he is Homozygous recessive-2 copies of the recessive gene His phenotype? I can’t Roll my Tongue!

4 Some common dominant and recessive traits Widow’s peak is dominant. You can be homozygous dominant (WW) or heterozygous (Ww) and you will have widow’s peak What is your genotype and phenotype if you’re homozygous recessive?

5 Making a Pedigree Chart Pedigree charts are made to chart family history and see how traits are passed A genetic counsellor will use pedigree charts to help determine the distribution of a disease in an affected family

6 Symbols Shade individuals that have the trait you’re studying Boys = squares (Lucy always calls Charlie Brown a ‘block head’) Girls = circles

7 Married-connected at side Siblings-connected at TOP not at the side (hopefully not siblings AND married) Oldest child-to the left Question-if shaded individuals in this pedigree have blue eyes, what is the GENOTYPE of the parents?

8 Other Divorced, separated Deceased Identical twins Fraternal twins

9 Generations are identified by Roman numerals Organizing the pedigree chart I II III IV

10 Organizing the pedigree chart Individuals in each generation are identified by Arabic numerals numbered from the left Therefore the affected individuals are II3, IV2 and IV3 I II III IV

11 What’s going on? Shaded = blue eyes 1 and 2 split after having 4, 2 then had kids with 3 and split with her too after 5-9 were born Genotypes of 1, 4,7? Genotypes of 2 & 3? Genotypes of 5,6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12?

12 Time to practice… 1.Complete the practice worksheet on pedigrees in class (we will review) 2.Pedigree swap activity 3.Homework assignment – YOUR CHOICE!

13 Make your own pedigree Using your own family, make your own pedigree chart Must at LEAST include grandparents, parents, & your generation Pick one easy dominant or recessive trait and shade individuals that have it. You can guess who has it if you don’t know for sure. (Don’t pick a trait that EVERYONE in your family has) Label yourself, grandparents, cousins, etc Put a key on the pedigree so I know what shaded means. Ex.- shaded people have widow’s peak OR…you may create a pedigree chart for a fictional family of your choice. For example, a family in a book you read or a movie you have seen (ex: Twilight series, Harry Potter, etc)

14 Which technology was important to the development of the cell theory?

15 Microscope

16 The monk who worked with pea plants to discover the patterns of heredity was

17 Gregor Mendel

18 The person responsible for taking the x-rays which led to the discovery of the structure of DNA was

19 Francis Crick

20 Chemical which contains the information for an organism’s growth and functions is the

21 DNA

22 The unit of heredity that determines a particular trait is known as a The unit of heredity that determines a particular trait is known as a

23 Phenotype

24 The smallest unit that can perform the basic activities of life is the

25 Cell

26 Four molecules that write the DNA code are

27 –Nucleotides

28 Different forms of the same gene are called

29 Alleles

30 Traits that are coded for on DNA are considered _________; while those that are obtained by means other than genetically are considered Traits that are coded for on DNA are considered _________; while those that are obtained by means other than genetically are considered

31 Inherited; acquired

32 The step that follows mitosis during which the cytoplasm divides is called

33 Cytokinesis

34 What is the proper order for the steps of mitosis?

35 DNA replicates during Which phase?

36 An example of a codominant human trait is

37 a)Freckles b)Earlobes c)Hair color d)Blood type

38 An example of a recessive trait in humans is

39 a)Freckles b)Unattached earlobe c)Straight hair d)Brown eyes

40 A human female would have which set of sex chromosomes?

41 a)XX b)XY c)YY d)XxYy

42 Cells that contain half the usual number of chromosomes are

43 Gametes

44 Crossing organisms to produce offspring with desirable trait is called

45 Selective breeding

46 Any change in DNA is called

47 Mutation

48 Radiation treatments can be dangerous because they can Radiation treatments can be dangerous because they can

49 Kill healthy cells

50 Table which represents the possible combination of parental alleles

51 Punnett square

52

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