Presentation on theme: "23-1 Chapter 23: Patterns of Gene Inheritance. 23-2 Mendel’s Laws Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk who in 1860 developed certain laws of heredity after."— Presentation transcript:
23-2 Mendel’s Laws Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk who in 1860 developed certain laws of heredity after doing crosses between garden pea plants. Gregor Mendel investigated genetics at the organismal level. Examples of traits that can be observed at the organismal level include facial features (ex: big noses) that cause generations to resemble each other.
23-3 Gregor Mendel Mendel’s law of segregation: 1.) Each individual has two factors (called genes) for each trait (one from each parent). 2.) The genes segregate (separate) during gamete formation (i.e., meiosis). 3.) Each gamete contains only one gene for each trait (i.e., they are haploid). 4.) Fertilization gives the new individual two genes for each trait (one from each parent, restores diploid state).
23-4 Homologous Chromosomes Genes From FatherFrom Mother Diploid = Two copies of each type of chromosome Loci = Physical position of a gene on a chromosome Allele = Alternate forms of a gene: Alleles have the same position (locus) on a pair of homologous chromosomes
23-5 Alleles code for the same trait. Examples of alleles: -curly or straight (alleles), hair type (gene) -attached or unattached (alleles), ear lobe type (gene) Chromosomes segregate during the formation of the gametes and each gamete has only one chromosome from each pair. Fertilization gives each new individual two chromosomes again.
23-6 The Inheritance and Expression of a Single Trait A capital letter indicates a dominant allele, which is expressed when present. An example is W for widow’s peak. A lowercase letter indicates a recessive allele, which is only expressed only in the absence of a dominant allele. An example is w for a continuous or straight hairline.
23-8 Genotype and Phenotype Genotype refers to the genes of an individual which can be represented by two letters or by a short descriptive phrase. Homozygous means that both alleles are the same; for example, WW stands for homozygous dominant and ww stands for homozygous recessive.
23-9 Heterozygous means that the members of the allelic pair are different—for example, Ww. Phenotype refers to the physical or observable characteristics of the individual – widow’s peak or straight hairline. Both WW and Ww result in widow’s peak, two genotypes with the same phenotype.
23-10 Gamete Formation Because homologous pairs separate during meiosis, a gamete has only one allele from each pair of alleles (for a specific gene). If the allelic pair is Ww, the resulting gametes would contain either a W or a w, but not both – (gametes are haploid). Ww represents the genotype of an individual. Gametes that could be produced by this individual are W or w.
23-11 Genotype AA Aa AABb AaBb GametesA Aa ABAb ABAbaBab
23-12 One-Trait Crosses In one-trait crosses, only one trait (such as type of hairline) is being considered. When performing crosses, the original parents are called the parental generation, or the P generation. All of their children are the filial generation, or F generation. Children are monohybrids when they are heterozygous for one pair of alleles.
23-14 If you know the genotype of the parents, it is possible to determine the gametes and use a Punnett square to determine the phenotypic ratio among the offspring. Ww w W WWWw ww
23-15 Monohybrid cross Genotypes of parents are known (both are heterozygous Ww) Genotypic Ratio 1WWhomozygous dominant 2Wwheterzygous 1wwhomozygous recessive Phenotypic Ratio 3widow’s peak 1straight hairline
23-16 The One-Trait Testcross It is not always possible to discern a homozygous dominant from a heterozygous individual by inspection of phenotype (they have the same phenotype – both will have widow’s peak). A testcross crosses the dominant phenotype with the recessive phenotype. If a homozygous recessive phenotype is among the offspring, the parent must be heterozygous.
23-17 One-trait testcross All offspring have dominant phenotype. Therefore the dominant parent (genotype we are tying to figure out) must be homozygous dominant. ?
23-18 ? Offspring have dominant and recessive phenotypes. Therefore the dominant parent (genotype we are tying to figure out) must be heterozygous dominant.
23-19 1.) Both a man and woman are heterozygous for tongue rolling. Tongue rolling is dominant over non-tongue rolling. What is the chance that their child will be a tongue roller? Male Female Tt TtTt TtTt TtTt TtTt T TtTt TtTt t GENOTYPE GAMETES MALE FEMALE Offspring Phenotypes 3Rollers 1Non-Roller 3 of 4 chances for roller child (75% chance).
23-20 2) Both you and your sibling are non-rollers and your parents are rollers. Tongue rolling is dominant over non-tongue rolling. What are the genotypes of your parents? OFFSPRING tt PARENTSTt TtTt TtTt TT Tt tt
23-21 The Inheritance of Many Traits Independent Assortment The law of independent assortment states that each pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs and all possible combinations of alleles can occur in the gametes. This law is dependent on the random arrangement of homologous pairs at metaphase.
23-23 Two-Trait Crosses In two-trait crosses, genotypes of the parents require four letters because there two alleles for each trait. Gametes will contain one letter for each trait. When a dihybrid (heterozygous for both traits) reproduces with another dihybrid the phenotypic results are 9 : 3 : 3 : 1.
23-24 Widow’s Peak is dominant over Straight Hairline Ww Short Fingers are dominant over Long Fingers Ss PhenotypeGenotypes Widow’s Peak / Short Fingers WWSS WWSs WwSS WsSs Widow’s Peak / Long Fingers WWss Wwss Straight HL / Short Fingers wwSS wwSs Straight HL / Long Fingerswwss
23-25 Dihybrid cross (two traits) Widow’s Peak Short Fingers Straight Hairline Long Fingers Widow’s Peak Short Fingers homozygous dominanthomozygous recessive
23-27 The Two-Trait Testcross A testcross is done to determine genotype of individual that has dominant phenotypes (for both traits). (Homozygous dominant or heterozygous for the two traits under consideration). Cross heterozygote for both traits with homozygous recessive for both traits - results in 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 ratio.
23-29 DominantRecessive normal skin pigmentationalbinism frecklesno freckles broad lipsthin lips tongue rollernon-tongue roller PTC tasterPTC non-taster large eyessmall eyes migraine headachesno migraine headaches normal foot archflat feet SELECTED TRAITS IN HUMAN HEREDITY
23-30 If a man that is homozygous recessive for eye size (i.e., has small eyes) and is homozygous dominant for freckles (i.e., has freckles) has children with a woman that is homozygous dominant for eye size (i.e., has large eyes) and is homozygous recessive for freckles (i.e., does not have freckles), what are the potential phenotypes and genotypes of their children? ManllFF IF only for gametes WomanLLff Lf only for gametes ILFfILFf All are heterozygous for both traits and show large eyes with freckles GENOTYPEPHENOTYPE IF Lf ILFfILFf ILFfILFf ILFfILFf
23-31 If one of the children reproduces with another person that has the same genotype, what are the chances that they will have a child with large eyes and freckles? LlFfX LF Lf lF lf LFLflFlf LLFF LLFf LlFF LlFf LLFf LLff LlFf llff Llff llFf llFF llFf LlFf Llff LlFFLlFf large eyes/freckles Large eyes/no freckles Small eyes/freckles Small eyes/no freckles 1/16 3/16 9/16 or 56 %
23-32 Genetic Disorders Patterns of Inheritance When studying human disorders, biologists often construct pedigree charts to show the pattern of inheritance of a characteristic within a family. Genetic counselors construct pedigree charts to determine the mode (dominant or recessive) of inheritance of a condition.
23-33 Pedigree Analysis: determine how a genetic disorder is inherited, chances of offspring having a genetic disorder. Unaffected maleUnaffected female Affected MaleAffected female “UNION” OFFSPRING
23-34 Genetic Disorders: medical conditions caused by alleles inherited from parents, hereditary disorder. Autosomal Genetic Disorders: genetic disorders caused by Alleles on autosomal chromosomes (non-sex Chromosomes – similar to somatic). Autosomal Disorders can be: 1) Autosomal Dominant 2) Autosomal Recessive Autosomal Dominant AA or Aa have disorder (phenotype) aa Aa aa
23-35 Autosomal Recessive: aa have disorder (phenotype) aa Aa AA or Aa
23-36 Autosomal recessive pedigree chart (Tay-sachs disease, Cystic fibrosis, PKU) CARRIER – Has allele but is unaffected * HOW DO YOU KNOW INDIVIDUAL IS HETEROZYGOUS? *
23-37 Autosomal dominant pedigree chart (Neurofibromatosis, Huntington disease) * HOW DO YOU KNOW INDIVIDUAL IS HETEROZYGOUS? *
23-38 Polygenic Inheritance Polygenic traits are governed by more than one gene pair (e.g., several pairs of genes may be involved in determining the phenotype).
23-39 Polygenic inheritance Such traits produce a continuous variation representing a bell- shaped curve (Ex: height in humans).
23-40 Skin Color The inheritance of skin color, determined by an unknown number of gene pairs, is a classic example of polygenic inheritance. A range of phenotypes exist from very dark to very light. The distribution of these phenotypes also follows a bell-shaped curve.
23-41 Polygenic Disorders Many human traits, like allergies, schizophrenia, hypertension, diabetes, cancers, and cleft lip, appear to be due to the combined action of many genes plus environmental influences.
23-42 Multiple Allelic Traits Inheritance by multiple alleles occurs when more than two alternative alleles exist for a particular gene locus. A person’s blood type is an example of a trait determined by multiple alleles (A, B, and O). ***Each individual inherits only two alleles for these genes.
23-43 ABO Blood Types A person can have an allele for an A antigen (blood type A) or a B antigen (blood type B), both A and B antigens (blood type AB), or no antigen (blood type O) on the red blood cells. Human blood types can be type A (I A I A or I A i), type B (I B I B or I B i), type AB (I A I B ), or type 0 (ii). Alleles: A, B, O
23-44 Inheritance of blood type…. (Who’s your daddy?)
23-45 Incompletely Dominant Traits Codominance means that both alleles are equally expressed in a heterozygote. (Ex: sickle cell anemia) Incomplete dominance is exhibited when the heterozygote doesn’t show the dominant trait but shows an intermediate phenotype, representing a blending of traits. (Ex: curly, wavy, or straight hair)
23-47 Sickle-Cell Disease Sickle-cell disease is an example of a human disorder controlled by incompletely dominant alleles. Sickle cell disease involves irregular, sickle shaped red blood cells caused by abnormal hemoglobin. Hb A represents normal hemoglobin; and Hb S represents the sickled condition.
23-48 Hb A Hb A individuals are normal; Hb S Hb S individuals have sickle-cell disease and Hb A Hb S individuals have the intermediate condition called sickle-cell trait. Heterozygotes have an advantage in malaria-infested Africa because the pathogen for malaria cannot exist in their blood cells. This evolutionary selection accounts for the prevalence of the allele among African Americans.