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Genetic Disorders and Gene Therapy Overview of Lesson Genetic diseases –Chromosomal –Single gene Gene Therapy –What is it? –How is it done?

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Presentation on theme: "Genetic Disorders and Gene Therapy Overview of Lesson Genetic diseases –Chromosomal –Single gene Gene Therapy –What is it? –How is it done?"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Genetic Disorders and Gene Therapy

3 Overview of Lesson Genetic diseases –Chromosomal –Single gene Gene Therapy –What is it? –How is it done?

4 Chromosomal Diseases Gametes have abnormal chromosome numbers and mutationsGametes have abnormal chromosome numbers and mutations Offspring inherit extra chromosome or are missing a chromosomeOffspring inherit extra chromosome or are missing a chromosome Caused by problems with meiosisCaused by problems with meiosis

5 Based on: Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning Nondisjunction of chromosomes during meiosis

6 Characteristics of a child with Down Syndrome -wide, rounded face -equal length fingers -Lower cognitive ability -webbed neck -enlarged tongue Normal female karyotype with 46 chromosomes Down syndrome karyotype with an extra chromosome 21 Based on: Mader, S., Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

7 Overview of Lesson Genetic diseases –Chromosomal –Single gene Gene Therapy –Process –Vectors

8 Important Points about Inheritance Genes have different forms, calledGenes have different forms, called alleles alleles Each trait is controlled by effects ofEach trait is controlled by effects of two alleles two alleles Some alleles are:Some alleles are: dominant/recessive dominant/recessive other alleles are co-dominant other alleles are co-dominant

9 Allele for Widow’s PeakAllele for Widow’s Peak is dominant is dominant A person with WW or WwA person with WW or Ww will have Widow’s Peak will have Widow’s Peak Allele for Straight HairlineAllele for Straight Hairline is recessive is recessive A person with ww will haveA person with ww will have a Straight Hairline a Straight Hairline Hairline Traits

10 Genotype vs. Phenotype Genotype refers to the allelesGenotype refers to the alleles Phenotype refers to the appearancePhenotype refers to the appearance Example: Genotype - Phenotype WW - person has a widow’s peak Ww - person has a widow’s peak ww - person has a straight hair line

11 Genetics & Human Diseases About 4,000 human diseases are thought to be inherited. Scientists are making good progress figuring out where genes are located on chromosomes. Genetic diseases are caused by mutations, or incorrect sequences, in the normal form of the gene.Genetic diseases are caused by mutations, or incorrect sequences, in the normal form of the gene.

12 Huntington’s Disease Results in a loss of muscle control and mental function. The symptoms usually do not appear until after 30 years old. 1 in 10,000 people. Caused by a dominant allele

13 Mucus in bronchi is thick, interfering with lung function 1 in 25 are carriers One of the first disorders to be actively studied for gene therapy. Most lethal autosomal recessive disorder in U.S. Cystic Fibrosis

14 Based on: Harvard Family Health Guide, 1999 Sickle Cell Disease- recessive allele Red blood cells are sickle shaped, issues with circulation causing anemia and pain

15 Sickle cell disease (sickle cell anemia) Codominant disorder found in African Americans. –1 in 400 African Americans Can be fatal. Possible cure: bone-marrow transplants The sickle cell trait can prevent Malaria

16 Hemophilia A disorder in which a person’s blood does not clot properly. It is a recessive sex- linked, X- chromosome disorder. 1 in 10,000 males born are afflicted. “Royalty Disease”

17 ADA-deficient persons are affected by severe immunodeficiency, with recurrent infections that might be life-threatening. First disease approved for gene therapy. Autosomal recessive disorder. The drug exists but is very expensive, needs to be injected in vein for life. Adenoside Deaminase (ADA) Deficiency

18 Overview of Lesson Genetic diseases –Chromosomal –Single gene Gene Therapy –What is it? –How is it done?

19 What is Gene Therapy? Gene therapy is a treatment or cure for disorders caused by mutated genes. It involves adding a normally functioning copy of the gene(s) to enough affected cells to restore normal function.

20 What is Gene Therapy Germline gene therapy would be the permanent transfer of a gene into sperm or egg cells. –Future generations would be “cured”. Somatic cell (body cell) gene therapy is ideally only the transfer of genes to the affected cells.

21 Gene Therapy Successes Although no gene therapies have been approved by the FDA for sale, some diseases have been experimentally successful: –Melanoma (skin cancer) –Severe Combined Immunodeficiencies –Hereditary Blindness –Sickle Cell Anemia

22 How is it done? Viral Vector Carrying Healthy Gene Cell with mutated gene(s) Vector inserts healthy gene into cell New gene in the cell along with original genes

23 Gene Therapy To design and carry out a gene therapy treatment, a researcher must: 1.Identify the gene(s) responsible for the disorder. 2.Make copies of the normal gene. 3.Insert the copies into vectors. 4.“Infect” the affected cells with the vectors. 5.Activate the gene so that transcription and translation take place.

24 Viruses as Vectors Replicate by inserting their DNA into a host cell Gene therapy can use this to insert genes that encode for a desired protein to create the desired trait Four different types –Adenovirus –Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) –Retrovirus –Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

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26 Vector Advantages and Disadvantages Adenovirus + Infects many cell types − Does not integrate into host genome and can be lost. Retrovirus +Integrates into host genome and cannot be lost −Integrates into host genome and can cause cancer Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) + Integrates into host genome and cannot be lost − Difficult to work with. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) + DNA stays in nucleus without integrating into host genome. −Only infects cells of the nervous system.

27 Gene Therapy Disappointments In 1999 a boy died due to an immune response to an adenovirus gene therapy vector. Four children have developed cancer due to a retrovirus gene therapy vector

28 My Research: Building a better Vector Adenovirus shell delivers genes HSV-like virus protein tethers DNA to chromosome to keep genes in cell without integration

29 Your Goals: Learn more about gene therapy by completing a becoming a SPACE DOCTOR! Gene Therapy Vector Engineering Project. –First groups to complete the Space Doctor activity gets to chose from the genetic diseases we talked about today. –Use what you have learned and the Vector Toolbox to choose the best vector for treating the disease.

30 Tomorrow Learn about the techniques used to genetically engineer gene therapy vectors. Gene Therapy Vector Engineering Project. –Use paper models to simulate the process of engineering your gene therapy vector.


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