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Introduction to Computing CS 101 Autumn 2004

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Computing

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Charles Babbage Life : 1791 – 1871 UK Known as " Father of Computing " for his contributions to the basic design of the computer through his Analytical Machine http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/Babbage.html

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The First Programmer Countess of Lovelace http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/Ada.GIF Ada Augusta King

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The Mill The Analytical Engine of Charles Babbage was never completed in his lifetime, but his son Henry Provost Babbage built the "mill" portion of the machine from his father's drawings On January 21, 1888 the Mill computed multiples of pi to prove the adequacy of the design.

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First Electronic Computer Date: February 14, 1946 Place: University of Pennsylvania Name: ENIAC Designed by: J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly Purpose: Computing firing tables for the Aberdeen Proving Ground. Programming: Rewiring Memory: Nil Comment: ENIAC was a parallel processor well ahead of its time. Working with ENIAC

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ENIAC http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~museum/ This is only 1/10th of the original. It was announced on February 14th, 1946.

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How many Computers? The world only needs maybe three computers. Thomas J. Watson, Sr. (CEO IBM)

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IBM System 360

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Automatic loom Patterns controlled by a linked sequence of punched cards Punched cards

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First Transistor Year : 1947 Inventors John Bardeen Walter Brattain William Shockley Nobel prize in 1956

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http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/

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John Louis von Neumann Born: 1903, Hungary Died: 1957, USA Brilliant mathematician, synthesizer, and promoter of the stored program concept,… The von Neumann Architecture

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Alan Turing Life: 1912 – 1954 UK Pioneer in developing modern computer logic One of the first to approach the topic of artificial intelligence. http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/Turing.html

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Number Systems oDecimal System Base 10 Base 10 oBinary System Base 2 Base 2 oOctal System Base 8 Base 8 oHexadecimal System Base 16 Base 16

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Decimal Number System oBase 10 system (Ten digits: 0, 1, 2, …, 9) oCounting process Every digit goes through a cycle 0 9 Higher significant digit incremented by 1 for every cycle of the immediately lower significant digit oExample 00 01 02 …09 10 11 …19 20 21…

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Decimal Number System oExpanded form 5429 = 5,000 + 400 + 20 + 9 OR 5,429 = 5x10 3 + 4x10 2 + 2x10 1 + 9x10 0 5,429 = 5x10 3 + 4x10 2 + 2x10 1 + 9x10 0 oAddition Carry oSubtraction Borrow Negative number

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Decimal Number System oAddition oSubtraction 79121 9187+ 873411 955 9183- 8734186133

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Decimal Number System o10’s compliment Let N be an n digit number P = 10 n – N is 10’s compliment of N oExample 1 N = 5802 N = 5802 P = 10 4 – 5802 = 4198 P = 10 4 – 5802 = 4198 oExample 2 N = 4198 N = 4198 P = 10 4 – 4198 = 5802 P = 10 4 – 4198 = 5802

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