2Chapter 34 - ObjectivesThe purpose of Online Analytical Processing (OLAP).The relationship between OLAP and data warehousing.The key features of OLAP applications.
3Chapter 34 - Objectives How to represent multi-dimensional data. The rules for OLAP tools.The main categories of OLAP tools.OLAP extensions to the SQL standard.How Oracle supports OLAP.
4Business Intelligence Technologies Accompanying the growth in data warehousing is an ever-increasing demand by users for more powerful access tools that provide advanced analytical capabilities.There are two main types of access tools available to meet this demand, namely Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) and data mining.
5Business Intelligence Technologies OLAP and Data Mining differ in what they offer the user and because of this they are complementary technologies.An environment that includes a data warehouse (or more commonly one or more data marts) together with tools such as OLAP and /or data mining are collectively referred to as Business Intelligence (BI) technologies.
6Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) Original definition - The dynamic synthesis, analysis, and consolidation of large volumes of multi-dimensional data, Codd (1993).Describes a technology that is designed to optimize the storing and querying of large volumes of multi-dimensional data that is aggregated (summarized) to various levels of detail to support the analysis of this data.
7Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) Enables users to gain a deeper understanding and knowledge about various aspects of their corporate data through fast, consistent, interactive access to a wide variety of possible views of the data.Allows users to view corporate data in such a way that it is a better model of the true dimensionality of the enterprise.
8Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) Can easily answer ‘who?’ and ‘what?’ questions, however, ability to answer ‘why?’ type questions distinguishes OLAP from general-purpose query tools.Types of analysis ranges from basic navigation and browsing (slicing and dicing) to calculations, to more complex analyses such as time series and complex modeling.
9OLAP BenchmarksOLAP Council published an analytical processing benchmark referred to as the APB-1 (OLAP Council, 1998).Aim is to measure a server’s overall OLAP performance rather than the performance of individual tasks.
10OLAP BenchmarksAPB-1 assesses the most common business operations including:bulk loading of data from internal or external data sourcesincremental loading of data from operational systems;aggregation of input level data along hierarchies;
11OLAP BenchmarksAPB-1 assesses the most common business operations including (continued):calculation of new data based on business models;time series analysis;queries with a high degree of complexity;drill-down through hierarchies;ad hoc queries;multiple online sessions.
12OLAP BenchmarksOLAP applications are judged on their ability to provide just-in-time (JIT) information, a core requirement of supporting effective decision-making.This requirement is more than measuring processing performance but includes its abilities to model complex business relationships and to respond to changing business requirements.
13OLAP BenchmarksAPB-1 uses a standard benchmark metric called AQM (Analytical Queries per Minute).AQM represents the number of analytical queries processed per minute including data loading and computation time. Thus, the AQM incorporates data loading performance, calculation performance, and query performance into a singe metric.
14OLAP BenchmarksPublication of APB-1 benchmark results must include both the database schema and all code required for executing the benchmark.An essential requirement of all OLAP applications is the ability to provide users with JIT information, which is necessary to make effective decisions about an organization's strategic directions.
15OLAP ApplicationsJIT information is computed data that usually reflects complex relationships and is often calculated on the fly. Also as data relationships may not be known in advance, the data model must be flexible.
16Examples of OLAP applications in various functional areas
17OLAP ApplicationsAlthough OLAP applications are found in widely divergent functional areas, they all have the following key features:multi-dimensional views of datasupport for complex calculationstime intelligence
18OLAP Applications - multi-dimensional views of data Core requirement of building a ‘realistic’ business model.Provides basis for analytical processing through flexible access to corporate data.The underlying database design that provides the multi-dimensional view of data should treat all dimensions equally.
19OLAP Applications - support for complex calculations Must provide a range of powerful computational methods such as that required by sales forecasting, which uses trend algorithms such as moving averages and percentage growth.Mechanisms for implementing computational methods should be clear and non-procedural.
20OLAP Applications – time intelligence Key feature of almost any analytical application as performance is almost always judged over time.Time hierarchy is not always used in the same manner as other hierarchies.Concepts such as year-to-date and period-over-period comparisons should be easily defined.
21Multi-dimensional Data and OLAP cubes Multi-dimensional data is facts (numeric measurements) such as property sales revenue data and the association of this data with dimensions such as location (of the property) and time (of the property sale).Which is the best representation of multi-dimensional data: relational table, matrix or data cube?
22Multi-dimensional Data as 3-field Table versus 2-D Matrix
23Multi-dimensional Data as 4-field Table versus 3-D Cube
25Multi-dimensional data and OLAP cubes We consider cubes as solid 3-D structures with equal sides. However, the OLAP cube is n-dimensional structure (with sides that need not be equal).Alternative representation for n-dimensional data is to consider a data cube as a lattice of cuboids. Each cuboid represents a subset of the given dimensions.
27Dimensionality Hierarchy The lattice of cuboids does not show the hierarchies that are commonly associated with dimensions.A dimensional hierarchy defines mappings from a set of lower-level concepts to higher level concepts.
28Dimensionality Hierarchy countryseasonmonthquarterdayweekregioncityareazipCodeyear2-D data
29Dimensional Operations The analytical operations that can be performed on data cubes include:Roll-upDrill-downSlice and DicePivot
30Dimensional Operations Roll-up performs aggregations on the data by moving up the dimensional hierarchy or by dimensional reduction e.g. 4-D sales data to 3-D sales data.Drill-down is the reverse of roll-up and involves revealing the detailed data that forms the aggregated data. Drill-down can be performed by moving down the dimensional hierarchy or by dimensional introduction e.g. 3-D sales data to 4-D sales data.
31Dimensional Operations Slice and dice - ability to look at data from different viewpoints. The slice operation performs a selection on one dimension of the data whereas dice uses two or more dimensions. For example a slice of sales revenue (type = ‘Flat’) and a dice (type = ‘Flat’ and time = ‘Q1’).
32Dimensional Operations Pivot - ability to rotate the data to provide an alternative view of the same data e.g. sales revenue data displayed using the location (city) as x-axis against time (quarter) as the y-axis can be rotated so that time (quarter) is the x-axis against location (city) is the y-axis.
33OLAP ToolsThere are many varieties of OLAP tools available in the marketplace.This choice has resulted in some confusion with much debate regarding what OLAP actually means to a potential buyer and in particular what are the available architectures for OLAP tools.
34Codd’s Rules for OLAP Systems In 1993, E.F. Codd formulated twelve rules as the basis for selecting OLAP tools.
35Codd’s Rules for OLAP Systems Multi-dimensional conceptual viewTransparencyAccessibilityConsistent reporting performanceClient-server architectureGeneric dimensionality
36Codd’s rules for OLAP Dynamic sparse matrix handling Multi-user supportUnrestricted cross-dimensional operationsIntuitive data manipulationFlexible reportingUnlimited dimensions and aggregation levels
37Codd’s Rules for OLAP Systems There are proposals to re-defined or extended the rules. For example to also includeComprehensive database management toolsAbility to drill down to detail (source record) levelIncremental database refreshSQL interface to the existing enterprise environment
38Categories of OLAP Tools OLAP tools are categorized according to the architecture used to store and process multi-dimensional data.There are three main categories:Multi-dimensional OLAP (MOLAP)Relational OLAP (ROLAP)Hybrid OLAP (HOLAP)
39Multi-dimensional OLAP (MOLAP) Use specialized data structures and multi-dimensional Database Management Systems (MDDBMSs) to organize, navigate, and analyze data.Data is typically aggregated and stored according to predicted usage to enhance query performance.
40Multi-dimensional OLAP (MOLAP) Use array technology and efficient storage techniques that minimize the disk space requirements through sparse data management.Provides excellent performance when data is used as designed, and the focus is on data for a specific decision-support application.
41Multi-dimensional OLAP (MOLAP) Traditionally, require a tight coupling with the application layer and presentation layer.Recent trends segregate the OLAP from the data structures through the use of published application programming interfaces (APIs).
43MOLAP Tools - Development Issues Underlying data structures are limited in their ability to support multiple subject areas and to provide access to detailed data.Navigation and analysis of data is limited because the data is designed according to previously determined requirements.
44MOLAP Tools - Development Issues MOLAP products require a different set of skills and tools to build and maintain the database, thus increasing the cost and complexity of support.
45Relational OLAP (ROLAP) Fastest-growing style of OLAP technology due to requirements to analyze ever-increasing amounts of data and the realization that users cannot store all the data they require in MOLAP databases.
46Relational OLAP (ROLAP) Supports RDBMS products using a metadata layer - avoids need to create a static multi-dimensional data structure - facilitates the creation of multiple multi-dimensional views of the two-dimensional relation.
47Relational OLAP (ROLAP) To improve performance, some products use SQL engines to support the complexity of multi-dimensional analysis, while others recommend, or require, the use of highly denormalized database designs such as the star schema.
49ROLAP Tools - Development Issues Performance problems associated with the processing of complex queries that require multiple passes through the relational data.Middleware to facilitate the development of multi-dimensional applications. (Software that converts the two-dimensional relation into a multi-dimensional structure).
50ROLAP Tools - Development Issues Development of an option to create persistent, multi-dimensional structures with facilities to assist in the administration of these structures.
51Hybrid OLAP (HOLAP)Provide limited analysis capability, either directly against RDBMS products, or by using an intermediate MOLAP server.Deliver selected data directly from the DBMS or via a MOLAP server to the desktop (or local server) in the form of a datacube, where it is stored, analyzed, and maintained locally.
52Hybrid OLAP (HOLAP)Promoted as being relatively simple to install and administer with reduced cost and maintenance.
54HOLAP Tools - Development Issues Architecture results in significant data redundancy and may cause problems for networks that support many users.Ability of each user to build a custom datacube may cause a lack of data consistency among users.Only a limited amount of data can be efficiently maintained.
55Desktop OLAP (DOLAP)Store the OLAP data in client-based files and support multi-dimensional processing using a client multi-dimensional engine.Requires that relatively small extracts of data are held on client machines. They may be distributed in advance, or created on demand (possibly through the Web).
56OLAP Extensions to SQLAdvantages of SQL include that it is easy to learn, non-procedural, free-format, DBMS-independent, and that it is a recognized international standard.However, major limitation of SQL is the inability to answer routinely asked business queries such as computing the percentage change in values between this month and a year ago or to compute moving averages, cumulative sums, and other statistical functions.
57OLAP Extensions to SQLAnswer is ANSI adopted a set of OLAP functions as an extension to SQL to enable these calculations as well as many others that used to be impossible or even impractical within SQL.IBM and Oracle jointly proposed these extensions early in 1999 and they now form part of the current SQL standard, namely SQL: 2008.
58OLAP Extensions to SQL - RISQL The extensions are collectively referred to as the ‘OLAP package’ and are described as follows:Feature T431, ‘Extended Grouping capabilities’Feature T611, ‘Extended OLAP operators’
59Extended Grouping Capabilities Aggregation is a fundamental part of OLAP. To improve aggregation capabilities the SQL standard provides extensions to the GROUP BY clause such as the ROLLUP and CUBE functions.
60Extended Grouping Capabilities ROLLUP supports calculations using aggregations such as SUM, COUNT, MAX, MIN, and AVG at increasing levels of aggregation, from the most detailed up to a grand total.CUBE is similar to ROLLUP, enabling a single statement to calculate all possible combinations of aggregations. CUBE can generate the information needed in cross-tabulation reports with a single query.
61Extended Grouping Capabilities ROLLUP and CUBE extensions specify exactly the groupings of interest in the GROUP BY clause and produces a single result set that is equivalent to a UNION ALL of differently grouped rows.
62Extended Grouping Capabilities ROLLUP Extension to GROUP BYenables a SELECT statement to calculate multiple levels of subtotals across a specified group of dimensions. ROLLUP appears in the GROUP BY clause in a SELECT statement using the following format:SELECT ... GROUP BY ROLLUP(columnList)
63Extended Grouping Capabilities ROLLUP creates subtotals that roll up from the most detailed level to a grand total, following a column list specified in the ROLLUP clause.ROLLUP first calculates the standard aggregate values specified in the GROUP BY clause and then creates progressively higher level subtotals, moving from right to left through the column list until finally completing with a grand total.
64Extended Grouping Capabilities ROLLUP creates subtotals at n + 1 levels, where n is the number of grouping columns. For instance, if a query specifies ROLLUP on grouping columns of propertyType, yearMonth, and city (n = 3), the result set will include rows at 4 aggregation levels.
65Example - Using the ROLLUP Group Function Show the totals for sales of flats or houses by branch offices located in Aberdeen, Edinburgh, or Glasgow for the months of August and September of 2008.
66Example - Using the ROLLUP Group Function SELECT propertyType, yearMonth, city, SUM(saleAmount) AS salesFROM Branch, PropertyFor Sale, PropertySaleWHERE Branch.branchNo = PropertySale.branchNoAND PropertyForSale.propertyNo = PropertySale.propertyNoAND PropertySale.yearMonth IN (' ', ' ')AND Branch.city IN (‘Aberdeen’, ‘Edinburgh’, ‘Glasgow’)GROUP BY ROLLUP(propertyType, yearMonth, city);
68Extended Grouping Capabilities CUBE Extension to GROUP BYCUBE takes a specified set of grouping columns and creates subtotals for all of the possible combinations. CUBE appears in the GROUP BY clause in a SELECT statement using the following format:SELECT ... GROUP BY CUBE(columnList)
69Extended Grouping Capabilities CUBE generates all the subtotals that could be calculated for a data cube with the specified dimensions.CUBE can be used in any situation requiring cross-tabular reports. The data needed for cross-tabular reports can be generated with a single SELECT using CUBE. Like ROLLUP, CUBE can be helpful in generating summary tables.
70Extended Grouping Capabilities CUBE is typically most suitable in queries that use columns from multiple dimensions rather than columns representing different levels of a single dimension.
71Example - Using the CUBE Group Function Show all possible subtotals for sales of properties by branches offices in Aberdeen, Edinburgh, and Glasgow for the months of August and September of 2008.
72Example - Using the CUBE Group Function SELECT propertyType, yearMonth, city, SUM(saleAmount) AS salesFROM Branch, PropertyFor Sale, PropertySaleWHERE Branch.branchNo = PropertySale.branchNoAND PropertyForSale.propertyNo = PropertySale.propertyNoAND PropertySale.yearMonth IN (' ', ' ')AND Branch.city IN (‘Aberdeen’, ‘Edinburgh’, ‘Glasgow’)GROUP BY CUBE(propertyType, yearMonth, city);
74Elementary OLAP Operators Supports a variety of operations such as rankings and window calculations.Ranking functions include cumulative distributions, percent rank, and N-tiles.Windowing allows the calculation of cumulative and moving aggregations using functions such as SUM, AVG, MIN, and COUNT.
75Elementary OLAP Operators Ranking FunctionsComputes the rank of a record compared to other records in the dataset based on the values of a set of measures. There are various types of ranking functions, including RANK and DENSE_RANK. The syntax for each ranking function is:RANK( ) OVER (ORDER BY columnList)DENSE_RANK( ) OVER (ORDER BY columnList)
76Elementary OLAP Operators The difference between RANK and DENSE_RANK is that DENSE_RANK leaves no gaps in the sequential ranking sequence when there are ties for a ranking.
77Example - Using the RANK and DENSE_RANK Functions Rank the total sales of properties for branch offices in Edinburgh.SELECT branchNo, SUM(saleAmount) AS sales,RANK() OVER (ORDER BY SUM(saleAmount)) DESC AS ranking,DENSE_RANK() OVER (ORDER BY SUM(saleAmount)) DESC AS dense_rankingFROM Branch, PropertySaleWHERE Branch.branchNo = PropertySale.branchNoAND Branch.city = ‘Edinburgh’GROUP BY(branchNo);
78Example - Using the RANK and DENSE_RANK Functions
79Elementary OLAP Operators Supports a variety of operations such as rankings and window calculations.Ranking functions include cumulative distributions, percent rank, and N-tiles.Windowing allows the calculation of cumulative and moving aggregations using functions such as SUM, AVG, MIN, and COUNT.
80Elementary OLAP Operators Windowing CalculationsCan be used to compute cumulative, moving, and centered aggregates. They return a value for each row in the table, which depends on other rows in the corresponding window.
81Elementary OLAP Operators Windowing CalculationsCan be used to compute cumulative, moving, and centered aggregates. They return a value for each row in the table, which depends on other rows in the corresponding window.These aggregate functions provide access to more than one row of a table without a self-join and can be used only in the SELECT and ORDER BY clauses of the query.
82Example - Using Windowing Calculations Show the monthly figures and three-month moving averages and sums for property sales at branch office B003 for the first six months of 2008.
83Example - Using Windowing Calculations SELECT yearMonth, SUM(saleAmount) AS monthlySales, AVG(SUM(saleAmount))OVER (ORDER BY yearMonth, ROWS 2 PRECEDING) AS 3-month moving avg,SUM(SUM(salesAmount)) OVER (ORDER BY yearMonth ROWS 2 PRECEDING)AS 3-month moving sumFROM PropertySaleWHERE branchNo = ‘B003’AND yearMonth BETWEEN (' ' AND ' ’)GROUP BY yearMonthORDER BY yearMonth;